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G & D Ch. 13
 

G & D Ch. 13

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Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood

Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood

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G & D Ch. 13 G & D Ch. 13 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 13 Physical & Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood
  • The Nature of Middle Adulthood
    • Defining Middle Adulthood
    • 40 to ~65
    • Physical Changes & Health
    • Changes in appearance
    • Gray hair, baldness, weight gain
    • Changes in bones & joints
    • Loss of bone mass
    • Makes bones weaker & more brittle
    • Osteoporosis
    • Bones become porous & easy to break
    • More common in women
  • Physical Changes & Health
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Gradual onset & progression of pain & disability, with minor signs of inflammation
    • Becomes noticeable in late middle age or early old age
    • Common in people with joints subjected to routine overuse & abuse (athletes, manual laborers)
    • Hands, spine, hips, & knees
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Disease of the joints that also develops slowly & typically affects different joints causing different types of pain than osteoarthritis
    • Morning stiffness & aching in fingers, wrists, & ankles, with joints swelling
  • The Changing Senses
    • Vision changes
    • Presbyopia: loss of near vision
    • Glaucoma: fluid pressure in the eye increases because of improper drainage or too much is produced
    • 1-2% over 40 affected
    • African Americans particularly susceptible
    • Untreated can cause blindness
  • The Changing Senses
    • Hearing declines gradually
    • Presbycusis: Loss of high frequency hearing
    • About 12% between 45 & 65
    • Men are more prone than women
    • Some loss due to environment
    • Aging brings loss of hair cells
    • Eardrum becomes less elastic
  • Physical Changes & Health
    • Climacteric
    • Loss of ability to bear children
    • Usually begins in 40s & complete by late 50s
    • Menopause
    • During climacteric, menstruation becomes irregular & eventually stops
    • Some stop menstruating around 40, others may have regular periods into mid-50s
    • Most have last period in early 50s
    • Ovulation may continue for 1 – 2 years afterward
  • Physical Changes & Health
    • Estrogen-related symptoms
    • Hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, & urine leakage
    • Symptomatic symptoms
    • Difficulty sleeping, headaches, rapid heartbeat, & stiffness or soreness in the joints, neck, or shoulders
    • Ethnic differences in symptoms seem to be related to cultures
    • Treating symptoms of menopause
    • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
    • Taking low doses of estrogen, often combine with progestin
    • HRT reduces estrogen-related symptoms
    • Also reduces risk of osteoporosis
    • May have role in helping prevent Alzheimer’s
    • Drawback is increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer if taken for 10 or more years
  • Changes in Men
    • Sperm production decline 30% between 25 & 60
    • Enlargement & stiffening of prostate gland
    • May obstruct urinary tract
    • Prostate cancer concern
    • Gradual reduction in testosterone levels after mid-20s
    • Changes in sexual performance
    • Less perceived demand to ejaculate
    • Need longer time & more stimulation to achieve erection & orgasm
    • Much longer resolution phase
    • Frequent failures to achieve orgasm & loss of erection during intercourse
    • With willing partner, sexual activity can be lifelong
  • Cognitive Development
    • Practical Intelligence
    • The broad range of skills related to how individuals shape, select, or adapt to their physical & social environment
    • Applications of Practical Intelligence
    • Important approach in assessing adults’ competence in performing everyday tasks
  • Cognitive Development
    • Becoming an Expert
    • Crystallized intelligence tends to improve throughout one’s lifetime
    • Expert’s behavior patterns:
    • Don’t always follow the rules as novices do
    • More flexible, creative, & curious
    • Have superior strategies for accomplishing tasks
    • Spend more time planning
    • Declines in expert performance not nearly as great as they are for the abilities of information processing, memory, & fluid intelligence
    • Lifelong Learning
    • Adult learners differ from younger
    • Have a higher need to know why they should learn something before undertaking it
    • Enter learning situations with more & different experiences on which to build
    • Most willing to learn those things they believe are necessary to deal with real-world problems rather than abstract, hypothetical situations
    • More motivated by internal than external factors
  • Intelligence
    • Fluid Intelligence
    • The ability to deal with new problems & situations
    • Inductive reasoning, spatial orientation, perceptual speed, & verbal memory
    • Crystallized Intelligence
    • The store of information, skills, & strategies acquired through education & prior experiences, & through previous use of fluid intelligence
  • Religion & Meaning in Life
    • Individual Differences in Religious Interest
    • Religion is linked negatively to health with some and positively with others (e.g. cults)
    • Mainstream religion has a positive or no relationship to health
    • For some, it is important in coping with stress
    • For some, it aids in examining life’s meaning
  • Changing Priorities in Midlife
    • Generativity v. Stagnation
    • Generativity: Being productive by helping others to ensure the continuation of society bye guiding the next generation
    • Generativity is grounded in the successful resolution of the previous 6 phases
    • Many Avenues of Generativity
    • Parenting, mentoring, volunteering, foster grandparenting
    • Personal concerns & priorities of middle-age adults are different from those of younger adults
  • Changing Priorities in Midlife
    • Stagnation
    • Being unable to deal with the needs of one’s children or to provide mentoring to younger adults
  • Gender-role Identity
    • Men & women are most different in their gender-role identities in late adolescence & young adulthood but become increasingly similar in midlife & old age
  • Midlife Transition & Crisis
    • Most people believe they will have a midlife crisis
    • Evidence fails to support the idea of a crisis
    • Those experiencing a crisis tend to be suffering from general problems of psychopathology
    • People do experience some sort of fundamental change at some point during adulthood
    • Ego resilience: A personality resource that enables one to handle midlife changes
    • Ego resilience may account for the 2 outcomes (Generativity & Stagnation) in Erikson’s view of midlife
  • Middle Age Family Dynamics
    • Becoming Friends/Empty Nest
    • Parent child relationships tend to improve when children become young adults
    • Key factor to improvement is extent to which parents foster & approve of their children’s attempts at being independence
    • When children leave, parents better able to ascertain how the children turned out
  • When Children Return
    • Empty Nest Satisfaction Short-lived
    • ½ of children return after leaving
    • Men more likely than women to move back
    • Children w/low GPAs, low sense of autonomy, or an expectation that their parents would provide a large portion of their income following graduation
    • Adult children whose parents were verbally or physically abusive unlikely to move back, as well as those married
  • Caring for aged parents
    • Most middle-age adults have parents in pretty good health
    • A growing number need some sort of care
    • Job generally falls on daughter or daughter-in-law
    • Daughters 3 X as likely to care for parent(s)
    • Filial Obligation
    • Sense of responsibility to care for parent if necessary
    • All but a small percentage of care to older adults is provided by adult children & other family members
  • Caregiving Stress
    • 2 Main Sources of Stress
    • Trouble coping with declines in parents’ functioning
    • When caregiving is seen as confining, or seriously infringes on other responsibilities or leads to conflicts
    • Caring for parent entails psychological costs
    • Depression, resentfulness, anger, & guilt
    • Financial pressures especially when parent has chronic condition
    • Stresses for caring difficult for women
    • Coincides with peak employment years
    • Rewards as well
    • Parent(s) loss of independence & autonomy
    • Most move in as last resort
    • 2/3 receiving help with daily activities feel negatively about it
  • Grandparenting
    • Interaction with Grandchildren
    • Many functions of grandparents reflect social & personal dimensions
    • Social needs & expectations of what grandparents are supposed to do
    • Personal satisfaction & individual needs fulfilled by grandparent
    • Meaning of Grandparenting Along 5 Dimensions
    • Centrality
    • Grandparenting is most important thing in their lives
    • Valued Elder
    • Seen as being wise
    • Indulgence
    • Spoiling the grandchildren
    • Reinvolvement with personal past
    • Recalling the relationship had with own grandparents
    • Immortality through clan
    • Taking pride in the fact that they will be followed by 2 generations
  • Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren
    • Grandparents more likely to have independent lives from children or grandchildren
    • Biggest change for grandparents are increasing number becoming custodial parents for grandchildren
    • Raising grandchildren not easy
    • Rates of problem behavior, hyperactivity, & learning problems are high & have negative effect on relationship
  • Stress & Health
    • A number of specific changes in the body (e.g. increased heart rate, sweaty palms, hormone secretions) brought about by external situations
    • Stress results when you appraise a situation or event as taxing or exceeding your personal, social, or other resources & endangering your well-being
    • Day-to-day hassles that upset & annoy us prove to be most stressful
    • Culture plays an important role in how stress is perceived
  • Stress & Health
    • Coping
    • Any attempt to deal with stress
    • People appraise different situations as stressful at different times and at different ages
    • Stress, coping, & physical health
    • Chronic stress suppresses the immune system
    • Increases susceptibility to viral infection, increases risk of atherosclerosis & hypertension, & impaired memory & cognition
    • Type A behavior pattern
    • Intensely competitive, angry, hostile, restless, aggressive, & impatient
    • Type B behavior pattern
    • Opposite of type A
    • Type A 2 X more likely to develop cardiovascular disease
    • Some type A characteristics may be motivating for some people
    • Motivated to stick to diet or exercise
  • Exercise
    • Aerobic Exercise
    • Exercise that places moderate stress on the heart by maintaining a pulse rate between 60% & 90% of one’s maximum heart rate
    • Subtract age from 220 for maximum heart rate
    • Products of aerobic exercise
  • Personality
    • The 5-Factor Model of Personality Traits
    • Opposing dimensions
    • Neuroticism v. Stability
    • Anxious, hostile, self-conscious, depressed, impulsive, & vulnerable
    • Extraversion v. Introversion
    • Thriving on social interaction, likes to talk, takes charge easily, readily expresses opinions & feelings, likes to keep busy, much energy, prefers stimulating & challenging environments
    • Openness v. Closed to Experience
    • Vivid imagination & dream life, appreciation of art & strong desire to try anything once
    • Agreeableness v. Antagonism
    • Being accepting, willing to work w/others, & caring
    • Conscientiousness v. Undirectedness
    • Hard-working, ambitious, energetic, scrupulous, & persevering