Early Childhood ( 2 years to 6 years)Is a critical period in the development ofthe human potential.It is the period of the development ofinitiative.It is also referred to as preschool age.
Name used by ParentsMost parents consider early childhood aproblem age or a troublesome age. Parents also often refer to early childhoodas the toy age.
Name used by Psychologists Pregang age-the time when children arelearning the foundations of social behavior. Exploratory age- a label which implies thatchildren want to know what their environmentis, how it works, how it feels, and how they canbe part of it.
Questioning age- common way of exploring inearly childhood by asking. Imitative age-Imitations of speech andactions of others are prevalent. Imitativenature develops creative talents. Creative age-children show morecreativity in their play during earlychildhood than at any other time in theirlives.
Name used by EducatorsEducators refer to the early childhoodyears as the preschool age.When children go to nursery school orkindergarten, they are labeledpreschoolers rather than school children.
The preschool child is expected to develop thefollowing developmental self-help skills:1. control of elimination2. Self- feeding, self-dressing and doing somethingswithout much help,3.development of motor skills that allow him toexplore and do things to satisfy his curiosity,4. acquisition of adequate vocabulary tocommunicate his thoughts and feelings with thosearound him. His greater self-identity and self-control help his management of a socialrelationship.
Height The average annual increase in height is three inches.By the ages of six, the average child measures 46.6inches.Weight The average annual increase in weight is 3 to 5 pounds. At age six, children should weigh approximately seventimes as much as they did at birth. The average girl weighs 48.5 pounds, and the averageboy weighs 49 pounds.
Body Proportions Body proportions change markedly, and the “babylook” disappears. Facial features remain small but the chinbecomes more pronounced and the neckelongates. Gradual decrease in the stockiness of the trunk,and the body tends to become cone-shaped , witha flattened abdomen, a broader and flatter chest,and shoulders that are broader and more square. The arms and legs lengthen and may becomespindly, and the hands and feet grow bigger.
Body Build Endomorphic or flabby, fat body build, A mesomorphic or sturdy, muscular body build, An ectomorphic or relatively thin body build.Bones and Muscles The muscles become larger, stronger, andheavier, with the result that children look thinneras early childhood progresses, even though theyweigh more.
TeethThe primary teeth in the upper jaw are: Central incisors, which erupt between ages 7 and 12months and fall out around 6 to 8 years of age. Lateral incisors, erupting between 9 and 13 months ofage and falling out by the time a child reaches 7 or 8years of age. Canines or cuspids, which appear around 16 to 22months of age and fall out at 10 to 12 years old. First molars, emerging between 18 and 19 months andfalling out at 9 to 11 years of age. Second molars, which come in at 25 to 33 months oldand fall out at 10 to 12 years of age.
The primary teeth in the lower jaw are: Central incisors, which erupt at 6 to 10months and fall out at 6 to 6 years. Lateral incisors, erupting at 7 to 16 monthsand falling out between 7 to 8 years of age. Canines, which come in at 16 to 23 monthsof age and fall out between 9 and 12 years ofage. First molars, emerging at 12 to 18 monthsand falling out at 9 to 11 years of age. Second molars, which erupt between 20 and31 months and fall out at 10 to 12 years ofage.
FatEndomorphy have more adipose thanmuscular tissue.Mesomorphy have more muscular thanadipose tissue.Ectomorphic build have both smallmuscles and little adipose tissue.
During early childhood, the physiologicalhabits whose foundations were laid inbabyhood become well established. By the time the child is three or four yearsold, bladder control at night should be achieved. By the time the child is ready to enterschool, bladder control should be so completethat even fatigue and emotional tension will notinterfere with it.
Early childhood is the ideal age to learnskills. First , young children enjoy repetition andare, therefore, willing to repeat an activityuntil they have acquired the ability to do itwell. Second, young children are adventuresomeand, as a result, are not held ridiculed bypeers, as older children often are.
And, third, young children learneasily and quickly because theirbodies are still very pliable andbecause they are acquired so fewskills that they do not interfere withthe acquisition of new ones.Early childhood may be regarded asthe “ teachable moment” for acquiringskills.
Hand skills Self-feeding and dressing skills Greatest improvements in dressing skillsgenerally comes between the ages of 1 ½ and3 ½ years.Leg skills Once young children have learned to walk,they turn their attention to learning othermovements requiring the use of their legs.
By the time they are 5 or 6 years they learn to:HopSkipGallopJumpClimbRoller skatingIce skatingDancing
Is established between ages 3-6years.Approximately 10-13% of thepopulation is left handed.People who can use both handsequally are ambidextrous.
During early childhood, there is astrong motivation on the part of mostchildren learn to speak.There are two reasons for this;First, learning to speak is an essentialtool in socialization.Second, learning to speak is a tool inachieving independence.
To improve communication, childrenmust master two major tasks, anessential elements of learning tospeak.First, they must improve their abilityto comprehend what others are sayingto them.Second, they must improve their ownspeech so that others are trying tocommunicate them.
Comprehension is greatly influenced by howalternatively children listen to what is said tothem. Listening to the radio and to what is said inthe television has proved to be helpful in thisregard because it encourages attentivelistening. If people speak slowly and distinctly to youngchildren, using words they have reason tobelieve the child understands, this willlikewise encourage attentive listening.
By contrast, when people speakrapidly to young children, usingdifficult ands unfamiliar words andcomplex sentences, children becomeconfused and discouraged becausethey cannot understand what is beingsaid.This discourage them from trying tobe attentive listeners.
Early childhood is normally a time when rapidstrides are made in the major tasks oflearning to speak- building upvocabulary, mastering pronunciation, andcombining words into sentences. Two evidence that young children of todayspeak better than young children of the pastgenerations. First, parents of today, especiallymothers, talk more to their children partlybecause they have more free time to docompared to smaller families and morelabor-saving devices in the home.
Second, the more contacts youngchildren have with their peers, themore encouragement they have totalk, and the models they have toimitate.Because girls spend more time in thehome than do boys, who play morewith neighborhood children.Mothers talk more tom theirdaughters than to their sons.
At first the speech of young children isegocentric in the sense that they talkmainly about themselves, theirinterests, their families, and their, and theirpossessions.Amount of talkingEarly childhood is popularly known as the“chatter box”.Other children, by contrast are relativelysilent–the nontalkers or “ Silent Sams”.
Intelligence The brighter the child, the more quicklyspeech skills will be mastered and, the abilityto talk.Type of discipline Children who grow up in homes wherediscipline tends to be permissive, talk morethan those whose parents are authoritarianand who believe that children should be seenbut not heard.
Ordinal Position Firstborn children are encouraged to talk morethan their later-born siblings and their parentshave more time to talk to them.Family Size Only-children are encouraged to talk more thanchildren from large families and their parentshave more time to talk to them. In large families, the discipline is likely to beauthoritarian and this prevents children fromtalking as much as they would like to.
Socioeconomic Status In lower-class families, family activities tend tobe less organized than those in middle-andupper-class families. There is also loessconversation among the family members andless encouragement for the child to talk.Racial Status The poorer the quality of speech andconversational skills of many young blackchildren may be due in part to the fact thatthey have grown up in homes where the fatheris absent, or where family life is disorganizedbecause there are many children, or becausethe mother must work outside the home.
Bilingualism While young children from bilingual homesmay talk as much at home as children frommonolingual homes, their speech is usuallyvey limited when they are with members oftheir peer group or with adults outside thehome.Sex-role typing As early as the preschool years, there areeffects of sex-role typing on children’sspeech. Boys are expected to talk less thangirls, but what they say, and how they sayit, is expected to be different.
Early Childhood is characterized byheightened emotionality. Emotions like love, fear, joy, and anger areexperienced by the child just like adult. Children’s emotions last only for a fewminutes unlike the adults’ which may dragon for hours or days. Children are easily stimulated toexperience love, joy, jealousy, fear, andanger.
Young children experience most of theemotions normally experienced by adults. However, the stimuli that give rise to themand the ways in which children express theseemotions different. Family size influences the frequency andintensity of jealousy and envy.
Social environment of the home plays animportant role in the frequency andintensity of the young children’s anger.Discipline and child- training methodsused also influence the frequency andintensity the child’s angry outbursts.Jealousy is more common in smallfamilies.Envy, is more common in large familiesthan in small families.
Anger The most common causes of anger in youngchildren are conflicts over playthings, thethwarting of wishes, and vigorous attacksfrom another child. Children express anger through tempertantrums, characterized bycrying, screaming, stamping, kicking, jumping up and down, or striking.Fear At first, a child’s response to fear is panic;later, responses become more specific andinclude running away and hiding, crying, andavoiding frightening situations.
Jealousy Young children become jealous when they thinkparental interest and attention are shifting towardsomeone else in the family, usually a new sibling. They express their jealousy or they may be show it byreverting to infantile behavior, such as bed-wetting, pretending to be ill, or being generallynaughty. All such behavior is a bid for attention.Curiosity Children are curios about anything new that theysee and also about their own bodies and the bodiesof others. Their first responses to curiosity take the form ofsensorimotor explanation; later, as a result ofsocial pressures and punishment, they respond byasking questions.
EnvyThey express their envy in differentways, the most common of which iscomplaining about what they themselveshave, by verbalizing wishes to have whatthe other has, or by appropriating theobjects they envy.JoyThey express their joy by smiling andlaughing, clapping their hands, jumping upand down, or hugging the object or personthat has made them happy.
GriefTypically, they express their grief bycrying and by losing interest in theirnormal activities, including eating.AffectionThey express their affection verballyas they grow older but, while they arestill young, they express it physicallyby hugging, patting, and kissing theobject of their affection.
Socialization, is a process by whichchildren become participating andfunctioning members of a society. They interact with others, share thegroups symbol’s, norms, and values orculture. During the preschool years, children findsocial contacts with members of their ownsex more pleasurable than those withmembers of the opposite sex.
By the time the child is four years oldhe has a fairly well- defined conceptof what he is.Harry Stack Sullivan (1947) once saidthat the self-concept is composed of”Reflected Appraisals of others”.
Between the ages of 2 and 3 years, childrenshow a decided interest in watching otherchildren and they attempt to make socialcontacts with them. Parallel play, in which young children playindependently beside other children rather thanwith them. Associative play, in which children engage insimilar, of identical, activities with other children.
Cooperative play, in which they are a partof the group and interact with groupmembers. Onlooker, means watching other children atplay but making no attempt to plat withthem. They usually understands the rudiments ofteam play. They are conscious of the opinions ofothers and try to gain attention by showingoff.
The most important forms of social behaviornecessary for successful social adjustmentappear and begin to develop at this time. “Waldrop and Halverson” reported that thosechildren who, at age 2 ½ years, were friendlyand socially active continued to be so whenthey reached the age of 7 ½ years. Sociability at 2 ½ years were predictive ofsociability at 7 ½ years.
Social patternsImitation To identify themselves with the group,children imitate the attitudes and behavior ofa person whom they especially admire andwant to be like.Rivalry The desire to excel or outdo others isapparent as early as the fourth year. It begins at home and later develops in playwith children outside the home.
Cooperation By the end of the third year, cooperative playand group activities begin to develop andincrease in both frequency and duration asthe child’s opportunities for play with otherchildren increase.Sympathy Because sympathy requires an understandingof the feelings and emotions of others, itappears only occasionally before the thirdyear. The more play contacts the childhas, the sooner sympathy will develop.
Empathy Like sympathy, requires an understanding ofthe feelings and emotions of others but, inaddition, it requires the ability to imagineone-self in the place of the other person.Social Approval As early childhood draws to a close, peerapproval becomes more important than adultapproval. Young children find that naughty anddisturbing behavior is a way of winning peerapproval.
Sharing Young children discover, from experienceswith others, that one way to win socialapproval is to share what theyhave, especially toys with others. Generositythen gradually replaces selfishness.Attachment Behavior Young children who, as babies, discoveredthe satisfaction that comes fromwarm, close, personal associations withothers, gradually attach their affection topeople outside the home, such as a nurseryschool teacher, or to some inanimateobject, such as favorite toy or even a blanket.These then become what are known as
Unsocial PatternsNegativism Physical resistance gradually gives way to verbalresistance and pretending not to hear orunderstand requests.Aggressiveness Aggressiveness increases between the ages oftwo and four and then declines. Physical attacksbegin to be replaced by verbal attacks in theform of name-calling, tattling, or blaming other. Ascendant Behavior Ascendant behavior, or “bossiness”, beginsaround the age of three and increases asopportunities for social contacts increase. Girlstend to be bossier than boys.
Selfishness While young children’s social horizons are limitedmainly to the home, they are often selfish andegocentric. As their horizonsbroaden, selfishness gradually wanes butgenerosity is still very undeveloped.Egocentrism Like selfishness, egocentrism is graduallyreplaced by an interest in and concern for others.Destructiveness A common accompaniment of temper outburstsin young children is destroying anything withintheir reach, whether their own or someone else’spossessions. The angrier they are, the morewidespread their destructiveness.
Sex antagonism After that, boys come under social pressuresthat lead them to shun play activities thatmight be regarded as “ sissyish”.Prejudice Most preschool children show a preferencefor playmates of their own race, but theyseldom refuse to play with children ofanother race. Racial prejudice begins sooner than religiousor socioeconomic prejudice, but later thansex prejudice.
In early childhood, companions are mainlyassociates and playmates. During the first year of two of earlychildhood, when contacts with others aremainly in parallel or associativeplay, children’s companions become theirplaymates. Many young children have one or morefavorite playmates with whom they alsocommunicate their feelings, interests andeven their aspirations for the future.
In the selection ofcompanions, children prefer otherchildren of their own ages and levelsof development who can do what theyare able to do.Playmates who are goodsports, cooperative, generous, unselfish, honest and loyal. These qualitiesare even more important in thechildren they select as friends.
Most young children, at some time orother, have pets- dogs, acts, hamsters, whiterats, goldfish, birds, etc.- but the ones that meettheir needs for companionship best are dogsand cats, because they can play with theseanimals as if they were people. Less common substitutes are imaginaryplaymates- children who are a product of thechild’s imagination. Lonely children create playmates in theirimagination and play with them as if theywere playmates.
These imaginary playmates have thequalities children would like realplaymates to have and play as theircreators want them to play.Because young children’s vividimaginations are not held in check byreasoning ability, they actually believethat their imaginary playmates are realchildren and treat them as such.
In early childhood, leaders arecharacteristically larger, more intelligent,and slightly older than the other membersof the play groups.Two types of leaders in Early Childhood;a) Tyrannical bosses- who show littleconsideration for the wishes of others.b) Diplomats- who lead others by indirectand artful suggestions or by bargaining. Girls at this age are frequently assume therole of leadership in groups containingboys.
Often called as the toy age.As early childhood draws to aclose, children no longer endow their toyswith the qualities associated with thepeople, animals, or other objects theyrepresent.According to Bruner play in earlychildhood is “ serious business” thatmakes important contributions to thedevelopment during the early years ofchildhood.
Highly intelligent children, show apreference for dramatic play and creativeactivities and for books which informrather tan merely amuse. In their constructions, they make morecomplicated original designs than childrenwho are less bright. Creative children spend much of theirplay time doing something original withtoys and play equipment while noncreativechildren follow patterns set by others.
Well- developed motor skills encouragechildren to engage in games andconstructions while poor motor skillsencourage them to devote their play timeto amusements. The amount of play equipment childrenhave and the amount of space they haveto play in- both of which are influencedto a large extent by the socioeconomicstatus of the family-also influence thepattern of their play.
To play In the part of this period, play with toys is thedominant form of play. As their interest in group play increases, thay findtoy play, which is mostly solitary play lessenjoyable.Dramatizations At around age three, children’s dramatizationsconsist of playing with toys in ways that imitatelife experiences. Children play make-believe games with theirfriends- cops and rubbers, Indians orstorekeeper.
Constructions Young children make many things withblocks, sand, mud, clay, beads, paints, paste,scissors, and crayons. Most of their constructions are in imitation ofwhat they see in daily life or on the movie andtelevision screens.Games During the fourth year the child begins toprefer games played with peers to thoseplayed with adults. Games that tests skills, such as throwing andcatching balls, are also popular.
The young children likes to be read toand to look at pictures in books orcomics. Fairytales, nursery rhymes, andstories about animals and everydayoccurrences have special appeal. Most young children attend moviesinfrequently, but they do likecartoons, movies about animals, andhome movies of family members. They also enjoy listening to theradio, but are especially fond of watchingtelevision.
REPORTER:Papellero, Edlyn Mae L.THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!!!!!- GOD BLESS -