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Adolescence (Pt 1)
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Adolescence (Pt 1)

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Physiological growth in adolescence.

Physiological growth in adolescence.

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  • 1. Adolescence (Part 1)
  • 2. Definitions
    • Adolescence
    • Developmental stage between childhood & adulthood
    • Puberty
    • The maturation period during which the sexual organs mature
    • Menarche
    • The onset of menstruation
    • Spermarche
    • The first spontaneous ejaculation of sperm-laden fluid, usually around age 13
    • Primary Sex Characteristics
    • Characteristics associated with the development of the sex & reproductive organs
    • Secondary Sex Characteristics
    • The visible signs of sexual maturity not involving the sex organs directly
  • 3. Growth Spurt
    • Period of Rapid Growth
    • Boys grow 4.1” per year
    • Girls grow 3.5” per year
    • Girls begin about age 11
    • Boys begin about age 12
  • 4. Puberty
    • Pituitary Gland
    • Puberty begins when the pituitary gland signals other glands to release hormones
    • Androgens (male hormones)
    • Estrogens (female hormones)
  • 5. Puberty in Girls
    • Environmental & Cultural Factors
    • Menarche signals the onset of puberty
    • Better nourished girls begin earlier
    • Stress is a factor
    • Primary & Secondary Sexual Characteristics
    • Changes occur in the vagina & uterus
    • Breasts develop & pubic hair grows
  • 6. Puberty in Boys
    • Primary & Secondary Sexual Characteristics
    • Penis & scrotum growth, prostate gland & seminal vesicles enlarge along with the induction of spermarche
    • Pubic, underarm, & facial hair begin growing
    • The larynx enlarges & the voice deepens
  • 7. Psychological Reactions
    • Body Image
    • Embarrassment about the growth & changes
    • Early/Late Maturation
    • Early maturation brings weight
    • Boys more popular esp. with adult males & tend to have more problems in school
    • Girls early maturation leads to uncomfortable feelings, less self-esteem
    • Late maturing girls have lower status for dates, etc. early on
    • By 10 th grade, have better self-feelings & about bodies
  • 8. Nutrition
    • Obesity
    • 1 in 5 adolescents is overweight
    • 1 in 20 is obese (more than 20% over the average weight)
    • The 2 reasons are lack of exercise and poor diet
  • 9. Nutrition
    • Anorexia
    • Severe eating disorder in which an individual refuses to eat
    • 15% - 20% starve to death
    • Boys (10%) are becoming anorexic
    • Bulimia
    • Bingeing & Purging
    • Although the weight remains fairly normal, vomiting & diarrhea produces physical problems
    • Psychological & social factors involved
  • 10. Brain Development
    • Growth of Neurons
    • Growth brings more complexity to interconnections & more sophisticated thinking
    • Neuronal Pruning
    • 1% - 2% per year with continued myelination
    • Areas of Development
    • Prefrontal cortex is fully developed in early 20s
    • Dopamine-producing & reacting areas become more developed
    • More sensitivity to stress, less susceptible to alcohol
  • 11. Stress
    • Origins of Stress
    • Home, school, relationships, peers, intrapersonal, etc.
    • Number of stressful events can produce major illnesses
    • Can lead to psychosomatic disorders
    • Psychological, emotional, & physical interaction
    • Ulcers, asthma, arthritis, hypertension
    • Outcomes of Stress
    • Biological reaction
    • Release of hormones from the adrenal glands
    • Rise in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, & sweating
    • Long-term outcome
    • Reduction in the body’s ability to deal with stress and fight off disease
  • 12. Coping
    • Problem-focused Coping
    • Attempting to manage stress by directly changing the situation to make it less stressful
    • Emotion-focused Coping
    • Conscious regulation of emotion
    • Social Support
    • Assistance & comfort supplied by others
    • Defensive Coping
    • Unconscious use of strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation
  • 13. Threats to Well-being
    • Illegal Drugs
    • 50% of U.S. high school seniors & 20% of 8 th graders used marijuana in the past year
    • Reasons for use
    • Pleasurable experiences
    • Everyday pressures
    • Peer pressures
    • Thrill of doing something illegal
    • Addictive Drugs
    • Drugs producing a biological or psychological dependence leading to cravings
    • Physiological dependence
    • Psychological dependence
  • 14. Legal Drugs
    • Alcohol
    • Binge drinking a “tradition” on college campuses
    • Reasons adolescents start drinking
    • Release inhibitions
    • Reduce tensions & stress
    • Family patterns & genetics play a role
    • Tobacco
    • Nicotine is 4 ½ X more addicting than heroin
    • Produces psychological & physiological addiction
    • Produces a quick dependency
    • Produces pleasant emotional state
    • Seeing parents & peers smoking increases chances of starting
  • 15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    • AIDS
    • A leading cause of death among young people
    • Transmitted through body fluids
    • Other STDs
    • 1 in 4 adolescents will contract an STD before graduating high school
    • Chlamydia
    • A bacterial disease
    • Genital herpes
    • Virus-like cold sores or blisters
    • Trichomoniasis
    • Caused by a parasite
    • Gonorrhea & syphilis
    • Oldest known
    Genital Herpes Syphilis