Adolescence (Part 1)
Definitions <ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental stage between childhood & adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Pube...
Growth Spurt <ul><li>Period of Rapid Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Boys grow 4.1” per year </li></ul><ul><li>Girls grow 3.5” pe...
Puberty <ul><li>Pituitary Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty begins when the pituitary gland signals other glands to release ...
Puberty in Girls <ul><li>Environmental & Cultural Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Menarche signals the onset of puberty </li></u...
Puberty in Boys <ul><li>Primary & Secondary Sexual Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Penis & scrotum growth, prostate glan...
Psychological Reactions <ul><li>Body Image </li></ul><ul><li>Embarrassment about the growth & changes </li></ul><ul><li>Ea...
Nutrition <ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 5 adolescents is overweight </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 20 is obese (more than...
Nutrition <ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Severe eating disorder in which an individual refuses to eat </li></ul><ul><l...
Brain Development <ul><li>Growth of Neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Growth brings more complexity to interconnections & more sop...
Stress <ul><li>Origins of Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Home, school, relationships, peers, intrapersonal, etc. </li></ul><ul><...
Coping <ul><li>Problem-focused Coping </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting to manage stress by directly changing the situation to ...
Threats to Well-being <ul><li>Illegal Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>50% of U.S. high school seniors & 20% of 8 th  graders used ...
Legal Drugs <ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Binge drinking a “tradition” on college campuses </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons a...
Sexually Transmitted Diseases <ul><li>AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>A leading cause of death among young people </li></ul><ul><li...
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Adolescence (Pt 1)

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Physiological growth in adolescence.

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Adolescence (Pt 1)

  1. 1. Adolescence (Part 1)
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental stage between childhood & adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty </li></ul><ul><li>The maturation period during which the sexual organs mature </li></ul><ul><li>Menarche </li></ul><ul><li>The onset of menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>Spermarche </li></ul><ul><li>The first spontaneous ejaculation of sperm-laden fluid, usually around age 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Sex Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics associated with the development of the sex & reproductive organs </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Sex Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>The visible signs of sexual maturity not involving the sex organs directly </li></ul>
  3. 3. Growth Spurt <ul><li>Period of Rapid Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Boys grow 4.1” per year </li></ul><ul><li>Girls grow 3.5” per year </li></ul><ul><li>Girls begin about age 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Boys begin about age 12 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Puberty <ul><li>Pituitary Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty begins when the pituitary gland signals other glands to release hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Androgens (male hormones) </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogens (female hormones) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Puberty in Girls <ul><li>Environmental & Cultural Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Menarche signals the onset of puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Better nourished girls begin earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Stress is a factor </li></ul><ul><li>Primary & Secondary Sexual Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Changes occur in the vagina & uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Breasts develop & pubic hair grows </li></ul>
  6. 6. Puberty in Boys <ul><li>Primary & Secondary Sexual Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Penis & scrotum growth, prostate gland & seminal vesicles enlarge along with the induction of spermarche </li></ul><ul><li>Pubic, underarm, & facial hair begin growing </li></ul><ul><li>The larynx enlarges & the voice deepens </li></ul>
  7. 7. Psychological Reactions <ul><li>Body Image </li></ul><ul><li>Embarrassment about the growth & changes </li></ul><ul><li>Early/Late Maturation </li></ul><ul><li>Early maturation brings weight </li></ul><ul><li>Boys more popular esp. with adult males & tend to have more problems in school </li></ul><ul><li>Girls early maturation leads to uncomfortable feelings, less self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Late maturing girls have lower status for dates, etc. early on </li></ul><ul><li>By 10 th grade, have better self-feelings & about bodies </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nutrition <ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 5 adolescents is overweight </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 20 is obese (more than 20% over the average weight) </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 reasons are lack of exercise and poor diet </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nutrition <ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Severe eating disorder in which an individual refuses to eat </li></ul><ul><li>15% - 20% starve to death </li></ul><ul><li>Boys (10%) are becoming anorexic </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia </li></ul><ul><li>Bingeing & Purging </li></ul><ul><li>Although the weight remains fairly normal, vomiting & diarrhea produces physical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological & social factors involved </li></ul>
  10. 10. Brain Development <ul><li>Growth of Neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Growth brings more complexity to interconnections & more sophisticated thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Neuronal Pruning </li></ul><ul><li>1% - 2% per year with continued myelination </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of Development </li></ul><ul><li>Prefrontal cortex is fully developed in early 20s </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine-producing & reacting areas become more developed </li></ul><ul><li>More sensitivity to stress, less susceptible to alcohol </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stress <ul><li>Origins of Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Home, school, relationships, peers, intrapersonal, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of stressful events can produce major illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to psychosomatic disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological, emotional, & physical interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcers, asthma, arthritis, hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes of Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Biological reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Release of hormones from the adrenal glands </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, & sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in the body’s ability to deal with stress and fight off disease </li></ul>
  12. 12. Coping <ul><li>Problem-focused Coping </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting to manage stress by directly changing the situation to make it less stressful </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion-focused Coping </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious regulation of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Social Support </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance & comfort supplied by others </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive Coping </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious use of strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Threats to Well-being <ul><li>Illegal Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>50% of U.S. high school seniors & 20% of 8 th graders used marijuana in the past year </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for use </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasurable experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Peer pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Thrill of doing something illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Addictive Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs producing a biological or psychological dependence leading to cravings </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological dependence </li></ul>
  14. 14. Legal Drugs <ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Binge drinking a “tradition” on college campuses </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons adolescents start drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Release inhibitions </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce tensions & stress </li></ul><ul><li>Family patterns & genetics play a role </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Nicotine is 4 ½ X more addicting than heroin </li></ul><ul><li>Produces psychological & physiological addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Produces a quick dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Produces pleasant emotional state </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing parents & peers smoking increases chances of starting </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases <ul><li>AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>A leading cause of death among young people </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted through body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Other STDs </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 4 adolescents will contract an STD before graduating high school </li></ul><ul><li>Chlamydia </li></ul><ul><li>A bacterial disease </li></ul><ul><li>Genital herpes </li></ul><ul><li>Virus-like cold sores or blisters </li></ul><ul><li>Trichomoniasis </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by a parasite </li></ul><ul><li>Gonorrhea & syphilis </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest known </li></ul>Genital Herpes Syphilis
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