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Puberty Powerpoint for Sexual Health Year 10 class-J.Hunter

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  1. 1.
  2. 2. What is puberty?<br />The time meaning the end of childhood in which the body becomes able to reproduce. <br />
  3. 3. Changes in girls…<br />Hips and thighs widen – to make room for a baby<br />Growth of pubic hair<br /><ul><li>Warmth (primary)
  4. 4. Visual indicator of sexual maturity
  5. 5. Collection of secreted pheromones</li></ul>Breasts develop – to feed a baby<br />
  6. 6. Fill out female changes during puberty sheet. <br />
  7. 7. Female voice deepens<br />Girls vocal cords also grow causing a deepening of the voice but it does not “break” like boys<br />
  8. 8. Earlier growth spurt on average for girls than boys<br />Girls have their growth spurt earlier and don’t grow much afterwards. <br />This generally results in the boys being taller in the end<br />
  9. 9. Changes to a female during puberty:<br /> in size of the uterus<br />in size of the vagina <br />in size of the ovaries <br />In size of the fallopian tubes<br /><ul><li>Eggs are stored in the ovaries from birth but don’t get released until puberty with ‘menarche’ – the first menstruation</li></li></ul><li>Female reproductive organs roles:<br />Vagina: The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal. <br />Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing foetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit. <br />Ovaries: The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones. <br />Fallopian tubes: These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants to the uterine wall. <br />
  10. 10. Fill out female reproductive diagram<br />
  11. 11. The Menstrual Cycle<br />Menstru means "monthly"; hence the term menstrual cycle. <br />One of the changes that occur during puberty for females<br />With every cycle, a woman’s body prepares for a potential pregnancy, whether or not that is the woman’s intention. <br />The term menstruation refers to the periodic shedding of the uterine lining.<br />Hormones control this cycle<br />
  12. 12. From birth..<br />Females are born with a group of cells in their ovaries called follicles and these contain all of the ova (eggs) she will release in her life time.<br />The menstrual cycle sees the ova mature and be released into the fallopian tubes to be fertilised by sperm. <br />
  13. 13. If not fertilised..<br />There is no need for the lining of the uterus for implantation so the lining (the endometrium) is shed.<br />This mixture of blood and endometrium tissue is discharged through the vagina = menstruation or “having a period”<br />The cycle then begins all over again<br />
  14. 14. If fertilised… (after sexual intercourse)<br />If a sperm fertilises the ova (egg) in the fallopian tube a zygote (new ball of cells) is formed<br />The zygote implants itself in the endometrium of the uterus and the menstrual cycle ceases. <br />
  15. 15. The menstrual cycle phases<br />The cycle is described as being 28 days but some females cycles are slightly longer or shorter than 28 days. <br />
  16. 16. What is a pap smear?<br />The Pap smear is used to check changes in the cervix (the neck of the womb) at the top of the vagina.<br /> It is a screening tool to find early warning signs that cancer might develop in the future.<br />Cells are collected from the cervix and placed (smeared) onto a slide. The slide is sent to a laboratory where the cells are tested for anything unusual. If abnormal changes are found at screening, further tests will be done to see if treatment is needed.<br />A Pap smear only takes a few minutes. No drugs or anaesthetics are required and it can be done by a general practitioner, nurse or women's health worker.<br />
  17. 17. Mammograms..<br />When you reach age 40, you should have a mammogram every one to two years. <br />The test uses a special, low-dose x-ray machine to take pictures of both breasts. The results are recorded on x-ray film or directly onto a computer for a radiologist to examine. <br />Mammograms allow the doctor to have a closer look for breast lumps and changes in breast tissue. They can show small lumps or growths that a doctor or woman may not be able to feel when doing a clinical breast exam.<br />If a lump is found, your doctor may order other tests, such as ultrasound or a biopsy--a test where a small amount of tissue is taken from the lump and area around the lump. The tissue is sent to a lab to look for cancer or changes that may mean cancer is likely to develop. <br />
  18. 18. The recipe of how to make a baby..<br />First step is to fertilize: <br />The ovum can only be fertilized for about 18- 24 hours after it is released, so sperm must be present in the fallopian tubes around the time of ovulation. <br />During intercourse, millions of sperm are released into the vagina. As ovulation approaches, the cervical mucus becomes watery allowing the sperm to swim up the vagina through the cervix.<br />Only about 2,000 sperm will be strong enough to reach the uterus and the fallopian tube. <br />In order for fertilization to occur, one of these sperm must attach itself to the ovum and penetrate its outer surface. <br />The fertilized ovum will then continue travelling down the fallopian tube, taking several days until it reaches the uterus.<br />When it arrives, it attaches itself to the lining of the uterus and continues to grow. <br />
  19. 19. The bun is in the oven. Pregnancy <br />The pregnancy trimester is divided into three stages of three months each.<br />The First Trimester<br />From conception to 12 weeks. <br />Hormonal changes cause:<br />Frequent nausea<br />Vomiting<br />Increased fatigue and heightened emotional sensitivity<br />Food aversion and cravings<br />Heartburn and indigestion<br />Tender and swollen breasts<br />Change in complexion<br /> Frequent urge to urinate<br /> Constipation<br />
  20. 20. The Second Trimester<br />Starts from the 13th week to the 28th week. <br />Initial nausea and fatigue decreases and the baby grows rapidly and shows movements.<br />The umbilical cord thickens to carry oxygen and nourishment to the foetus.<br />Light exercise, good personal hygiene, healthy diet adds to the healthy growth of the baby at this stage.<br />
  21. 21. The Third Trimester<br />The last trimester from the 28th week till the birth of the baby. <br />The foetus continues to grow in size, bringing in changes in physical appearance. <br />Some physical changes include:<br /><ul><li>Shortness of breath
  22. 22. Sleeping difficulties
  23. 23. Leaking urine
  24. 24. Varicose veins can appear
  25. 25. Itchy skin
  26. 26. Stretch marks
  27. 27. Prepare for labour!</li></li></ul><li>Miscarriage <br />Miscarriage is the loss of baby during the earlier weeks of pregnancy.<br />In Australia, miscarriage is defined as a baby who dies before 20 weeks gestation and/or less than 400 grams in birth weight. <br />Babies who die after 20 weeks gestation (or who weigh more than 400 grams) are classified as being stillborn. <br />
  28. 28. Reasons for miscarriage<br />It is thought that up to 50% of miscarriages are due to a spontaneous genetic or structural abnormality in the baby, with most of these occurring at the time of fertilisation. <br />This can cause the new baby not to develop properly, or to die after only a few weeks of the pregnancy. <br />If the baby does not continue to thrive and grow, in most cases the woman's body will naturally expel the baby through miscarriage.<br />
  29. 29. Symptoms of a miscarriage..<br />Cramping and vaginal bleeding are the most common symptoms noticed.<br />What treatment can a woman expect when she has had a miscarriage?<br />The doctor needs to figure out whether the woman has passed all of the tissue from the foetus and placenta. <br />If she has passed all the tissue, she may only require observation by medical personnel. <br />If a woman who has not passed all of the tissue (incomplete abortion) will usually need suction dilation and curettage (D&C) of the uterus to remove any retained products of the pregnancy. <br />This procedure is done with local anesthesia, and sometimes antibiotics may be prescribed for the woman to prevent infection. <br />
  30. 30. Primary and Secondary sex characteristics<br />What is the difference between primary and secondary characteristics?<br />What are they for both males and females?<br />Primary?<br />Secondary?<br />
  31. 31. Primary sex characteristics: Characteristics involved directly with reproduction:<br />Penis<br />Vagina <br />Fallopian tubes<br />Uterus<br />Testicles<br />Prostate gland<br />Secondary sex characteristics: Characteristics distinguishing males from females but not specifically associated with reproduction:<br />Voice<br />Body shape wide shoulders and narrow hips for men.<br />Facial and body hair<br />Breasts<br />Adams apple<br />Age time line. Difference between males and females…<br />
  32. 32. Changes to boys..<br />Shoulders widen <br />Voice deepens (breaks). <br />Vocal cords grow 60% <br />longer and become<br />thicker. The voice box tilts <br />To a different angle in the<br /> neck. It can stick out as a<br />prominent ‘Adam’s Apple’.<br />The first facial hair to <br />appear tends to grow at <br />the corners of the upper<br />Lip. Followed by hair on the <br />upper part of the cheeks, under the lower lip, <br />then eventually spreads to the sides and border of the chin.<br /><ul><li>Increase in muscle mass – boys have more testosterone which helps develop muscle leading to increased size.
  33. 33. Growth of testes and penis Spermarche - spermarche is the first ejaculation. Testicles need to increase in size. Penis grows to full size. </li></li></ul><li>How do you like me know?<br />
  34. 34. Fill out male changes during puberty <br />
  35. 35. Male reproductive organs <br />
  36. 36. Roles of male reproductive organs:<br />The main reproductive organs of the male body are the testes, which produce sperm and also male hormones, in the form of testosterone. <br />Testes<br />The paired oval testes, also known as the male gonads, hang in the scrotal sac. The testes hang outside the body because the temperature inside the body is too high to produce sperm, so they are produced in the testes at about 3 °C lower than body temperature. <br />Epididymis<br />At the back of the olive-shaped body of each testis is a cap formed by the many coils of a 20-foot long tube called the epididymis. The function of the epididymis is to collect the immature sperm from the testis. <br />As the sperm make their long journey through the epididymis they become mature sperm. This journey takes about 20 days and during its course the sperm become fertile and they also become able to move in a swimming motion (doctors refer to the sperm then as ‘motile’). <br />Vas deferens<br />A thick walled tube which transports sperm from the epididymis up to the prostate gland. <br />The vas deferens empties into the ejaculatory duct, which passes through the prostate gland to merge with the urethra. <br />The urethra<br />The urethra serves as the tube down which urine passes from the bladder through the penis to the outside and also the tube down which semen is ejaculated. <br />The prostate<br />The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that surrounds the urethra. Along with the seminal vesicles it produces the fluid secretions that support and nourish the sperm. Without this fluid to dilute them the sperm cannot move easily. <br />
  37. 37. Fill out male reproductive organ diagram <br />
  38. 38. Reproductive organs cancer..<br />Prostate cancer- Cancer of the prostate gland.<br />Penile cancer- Cancer of penis.<br />Testicular cancer- Cancer of the testicles.<br />
  39. 39. Prostate cancer<br />Form of cancer that develops in the prostate.<br />The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes.<br />Prostate cancer may cause pain, difficulty in urinating , problems during sexual intercourse, or erectile dysfunction. <br />Treatment options for prostate cancer with intent to cure are primarily surgery and radiation therapy.<br />
  40. 40. Penile cancer..<br />Cancer cells form in the tissues of the penis.<br />This is a slow-growing cancer in its early stages, and because it interferes with erectile function, patients do not complain until pain or a discharge from the cancer occurs. By this time, the cancer has usually progressed from being superficial to invasive.<br />Risk factors for penile cancer include the following:<br />Being age 60 or older. <br />Having poor personal hygiene.<br />Having many sexual partners. <br />Using tobacco products.<br />Possible signs and symptoms of penile cancer include:<br />Redness, irritation, or a sore on the penis. <br />A lump on the penis.<br /> sores, discharge, and bleeding.<br />The following tests and procedures may be used to determine penile cancer<br />Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking the penis for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken. <br />Biopsy. The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer.<br />
  41. 41. Testicular cancer..<br />Risk factors for testicular cancer include: <br />Age (from 15 to 40) <br />Being born with an undescended testicle <br />A family history of testicular cancer <br />A history of testicular cancer in the other testicle <br />Most testicular cancer cases are found by accident by men themselves. Men should check their testicles from puberty onwards to establish what feels normal for them. <br />Warning signs: <br />A hard lump on the front or side of the testicle <br />Swelling or enlargement of the testicle <br />Pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum <br />An unusual difference between one testicle and the other <br />A heavy or dragging feeling in the scrotum <br />