Three to four weeks after conception, one of the twocell layers of the gelatin like human embryo, about one-tenthof an inch long, starts to thicken and build up along themiddle. As the cells continue to divide and this flat neuralplate grows, parallel ridges, similar to the creases in a paperairplane, rise across its surface. Within a few days, the ridgesfold in toward each other and fuse to form the hollow neuraltube. The top of the tube thickens into three bulges thatform the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. The first signs ofthe eyes and the hemispheres of the brain appear later indevelopment.
B. BODY • Grow rapidly between ages 3 and 6, but less quickly than before. • The trunk, arms, and legs grow longer. • The head is still relatively large, but the other parts of the body continue to catch up as body proportions steadily become more adult like. • Muscular and skeletal growth progresses, making children stronger. • Cartilage turns to bone at a faster rate than before. • Bones become harder, giving the child a firmer shape and protecting internal organs. • Childhood tooth decay remains high, especially among low- SES youngsters in the United • By age 3, all the primary, or deciduous, teeth are in place, and the permanent teeth which will begin to appear at about age 6, are developing.
C. Motor Skills 3-Year-Old 4-Year-Old 5-Year-Old • Cannot turn or • Have more effective • Can start, turn and stop suddenly or control of stopping, stop effectively in quickly starting and turning games • Can jump a • Can jump a distance of • Can make a running distance of 15 to 24 to 33 inches jump of 28 to 36 24 inches inches • Can ascend a • Can descend a long • Can descend a long stairway unaided, stairway alternating stairway unaided alternating feet feet alternating feet • Can hop, using • Can hop four to six • Can easily hop a largely an irregular steps on one foot distance of 16 feet series of jumps with some variations added
D. The Problems for Early Childhood • Night terrors occur mostly between ages 3 and 13, and effetc boys more often than girls • Walking and talking during sleep are fairly common in early and middle chilhood • It’s best not to interrupt sleep walking or night terrors, as interruptions may confuse and further frighten the child • Persistent sleep problems may indicate an emotional, physiological, or neurological condition that needs to be examined • It’s happened by staying up too late, eating heavy meal close to bed time, or overexcitement • Nor is persistent enuresis primarily an emotional, mental, or behavioral problem – though such problems can develop because of the way bed- wetters are treated by playmates and family • Heredity is a factor in the condition, possibly in combination with slow motor maturation, reduced bladder capacity, and slow arousal from sleep • In developing world, however, such vaccine-preventable diseases as measles, pertussis (whooping cough), and tuberculosis still take large toll.
MIDDLE CHILDHOODAspects of physical dvelopment in the middle chilhooda. Growth Starting at the age 6-11 years old Grow about 2 to 3 inches each year The weight approximately double their weight, average 10 years old about 11 pounds.b. Nutrition and sleep Needs 2400 calories every day (should get only 30% of their total calories from fat. Needs about 11 hours a day to sleep at age 5 to a little more, about 10 hours at age 9, and about 9 hours at age 13.
c. Motor development Most nonliterate and transitional societies go to work, plus more household labor espescially for girl. Give them time and freedom for physical play. Time play; about 10% of school children’s free play at recess in the early grades consist of rough and tumb play. Organized sports; organized athletic programs will help children improve their motor skills
d. Health, Fitness, and Safely1. Obesity/ overweight Causes of obesity: too much and wrong kinds of food Prevention of obesity : Less time in front of TV and computer, changes in food labeling and more physical activity2. Vision and Hearing problem Children under 6 yearsbold tend to be far sighted. by age 6, vision typically is more acute and because two eyes are better coordinated, they can focus better.
3. Asthma Asthma is characterized by sudden attacks of choughing, wheezing and difficulty in breathing.caused by some experts point to tightly insulated houses that intensify exposure to indoor environmental toxins and allergens.4. HIV and AIDS The cause of HIV and AIDS infected may acquired virus from their mothers and the victim of sexual abuse, etc.
Physical DevelopmentAdolescence • Begins : • The • Physical Hormonal Adolescence and Mental Change Brain Health
Begins : hormonal change Puberty begins with a sharp increase in production ofsex-related hormones and takes place in two stage : andrenarcheand gonadarche • Estrogens – More in girls – Adrenal estrogens • Androgens – More in boys – Testosterone
Factors Affecting Reactions to Puberty• Physical attractiveness – body image • Girls: most want to be smaller, thinner • Boys: most want to be bigger• Fitting in with peers • Prefer similar level of physical maturity
Timing and Sign of pubertybegins • When does puberty begins ?The puberty begins at Girls : 9-13 years old Boys : 10-11 years old• What is the sign of the puberty? The sign for puberty are : Girls : Menstruation or menarche Boys : Ejaculation or spermache
The sequence of Puberty andSexual MaturityPrimary• For Female Characteristics Age of First Appearance Growth the breasts 6-13 Body growth 6-14 Menarche 9.5-14.5 Growth the pubic hair 10-16.5 Appereance of underarm hair About 2 years after appearance of pubic hair Increased output of oil and sweat About the same time as appearance producing Glands of underarm hair
• Male Characteristics Age of First Appearance Growth of testes, scrotal sac 9-13.5 Growth of pubic hair 12-16 Body growth 10.5-16 Growth of penis 11-14.5 Change in voice About the same time as growth of penis First ejaculation of semen About 1 year after beginning of growth of penis Appearance of facial and About 2 years after appearance underarm hair of pubic hair Increased output of oil and About the same time as sweat producing Glands appearance underarm hair
• Secondary Girls Boys Breasts Pubic Hair Pubic Hair Axillary (underarm )hair Axillary (underarm ) hair Muscular development Change in voice Facial Hair Change in skin Change in voice Increased width and depth of Change in skin pelvis Muscular development Broadening of shoulders
Consequences of the Timing of Puberty Girls Boys Unpopular, withdrawn, • Popular low confidence • Confident, Early More deviant behavior independent Negative body image • Positive body imageMaturing More long-term problems Popular • Unpopular Sociable, lively, school • Anxious, talkative, Late leaders • attention-Maturing Positive body image seeking • Negative body image
Brain of an AdolescentsBrain undergoes physical changes which may be linked to adolescents’ behavior* Brain development influences behavior, emotion, judgment, self-control, and experiences influence brain development.
Physical and Mental Health Physical Development Nutrition and Physical Activity Sleep Needs Eating Disorders
Physical Activities Exercise affect both physical and mental health. Itimproves strength and endurance, help build healthy bones andmuscles, help control weight, reduces anxiety and stress andincrease self confidence and well being. The physical activities for boys is more than girls Sleep Needs Many Adolescents do not get enough sleep. Averagenighttime sleep declines from more than ten hours at age 9 toslightly less than eight hours at age 16. A pattern of late bedtimes and oversleeping in themorning can contributes to insomnia, a problem that oftenbegins in late childhood or adolescence.
Nutrition and Eating Disorders• Calorie needs increase• Poor food choices common: • Less fruits, vegetables, milk, breakfast • More soda, sweets, fast food• Iron, vitamin deficiencies• Eating with family can help
EATING DISORDERS• Obesity • ~15.5% of American adolescents are seriously overweight • Many adolescents are concerned about their weight • Most attempt to control it in ineffective ways • Obesity in adolescence is related to a variety of serious health risks in later life• Physical attractiveness – body image • Girls: most want to be smaller, thinner • Boys: most want to be bigger• Anorexia nervosa • Eat very little out of fear of getting fat • Poses serious health hazards• Bulimia nervosa • May retain normal weight • Binge eat (large quantity of food in short period of time) • Purge by vomiting, using laxatives, or exercising excessively
Mental DevelopmentUse and Abuse Death in Depression of Drugs Adolescence
DepressionIn normal surroundings, the prevalence of depression increaseduring adolescence. Genderfactors Anxiety Fear from social contact Stressful life Chronic illnesses Parent-child conflict Abuse or neglect And having parents with a history of depression
Use and Abuse of Drugs• Have tried, by grade 10: • Cigarettes – 40% • Alcohol – 63% • Illegal drugs – 38%• By end of high school: • 14% smoke regularly • 28% recent heavy drinking • 50%+ tried illegal drugs
Difficult Temperamentfactors Poor impulse control and a tendency to seek out sensation Family influences Early and persistent behavior problems Academic failure and lack of commitment to education Peer rejection Associating with drugs users Alienation and rebelliousness Favorable attitudes toward drugs use Early initiation into drug use
Use and Abuse of Drugs Death fromVehicle accidents and firearms Suicide