Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Psyc&200 module 6 slides: Early Childhood Development

15,971 views

Published on

CC-BY-SA 3.0 slides from Laura Overstreet's Lifespan Development Course from the Open Course Library: http://opencourselibrary.org/econ-201/

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Psyc&200 module 6 slides: Early Childhood Development

  1. 1. Early Childhood
  2. 2. Physical Growth in Early Childhood
  3. 3. Proportions From 2 to 6  Toddlers have large heads and stomachs and short arms and legs  Six year olds have longer torsos
  4. 4. Overall Physical Growth  Grow 3 inches in height per year  Gain 4 ½ pounds in weight per year  Average 6 year old is 46 inches tall and weighs 46  Small appetites between ages 2 and 6 years
  5. 5. Nutritional Concerns  Preschoolers and iron deficiency anemia  Children and high fat, high sugar diets  Setting up food preferences
  6. 6. Avoiding Eating Problems  Don’t force feed or fight  Appetite varies  Keep it pleasant  No short order chefs  Limit choices  Serve balanced meals  Don’t bribe
  7. 7. Brain Maturation  Brain weight  Changes in emotional control and coordination  Visual pathways  Growth of hemispheres  Corpus callosum
  8. 8. Motor Skill Development: Gross Motor Skills  Running  Jumping  Swinging  Bicycling  Songs and motion
  9. 9. Motor Skill Development: Fine Motor Skills  Pouring  Using Scissors  Coloring  Songs and fine motor skills activities
  10. 10. Sexual Development in Childhood  Infancy  Early childhood
  11. 11. Cognitive Development Thought and Language
  12. 12. Piaget’s Preoperational Intelligence  Learning to use symbols  Becoming ‘mental’
  13. 13. PRETEND PLAY Imagination and
  14. 14. Syncretism Photo Courtesy ReservasdeCoches.com
  15. 15. EGOCENTRISM
  16. 16. ANIMISM What’s alive?
  17. 17. Classification Errors
  18. 18. Conservation Errors
  19. 19. Theory of Mind  Established at around 4  Knowledge of others’ mental states  Everyday mindreading  Theory of mind and autistic spectrum disorders
  20. 20. Language Development  Vocabulary growth (10-20 words per day)  Understanding incomplete  Preference for nouns  Over-regularization: “I goed there. I doed that!”
  21. 21. Impact of Training on Cognitive Development  Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development  Do you talk to yourself? Why?  Combining language and thought: egocentric and private speech
  22. 22. Psychosocial Development A Look at Self-Concept, Gender Identity and Family Life
  23. 23. Self-Concept  What is a self-concept?  One’s image of oneself  Develops through interactions with others
  24. 24. Self-Concept  Cooley’s looking-glass self  We judge our performance based on the reactions of others  Inaccuracies in our self-concept?
  25. 25. Mead’s “I” and the “me”  “I” spontaneous self  “me” socialized self  Taking the role of the other  Taking the role of a significant other  Taking the role of the generalized other
  26. 26. Mead’s Development of Self  Imitation  Play  Game
  27. 27. Self-Concept  Early childhood-exaggerated sense of self  School-aged children: more realistic sense of self
  28. 28. INITIATIVE VS. GUILT Erikson
  29. 29. Gender Identification  Freud: The Phallic Stage  Chordorow: Mothering  Cognitive Theory and gender schema  Learning Theorists: Reinforcement and Modeling
  30. 30. Ways In Which Gender is Taught  Socialization in infancy  Parenting sons and daughters  Teachers and schools  Friends
  31. 31. Which explanation is best?  Is gender taught or do children seek out how to behave based on their sex?  Probably both.
  32. 32. Parenting Styles The key is to match expectations with maturity
  33. 33. Parenting Styles: Baumrind’s Model  Authoritarian-children should be seen and not heard!  Permissive-let the kids rule  Authoritative-strictness with affection  Uninvolved-disengaged
  34. 34. LeMaster’s and DeFrain’s Model  Martyr  Pal  Police Officer/Drill Sergeant  Teacher-Counselor  Athletic Coach
  35. 35. WARM, CARING, SUPPORT What really matters?
  36. 36. Childcare  How many mothers work outside of home?  64.2 percent with children under 6  77.3 percent with children 6-17  What about childcare?  Global Concerns  Example: Liberia’s Market Women
  37. 37. Stress and Development  Normal vs. toxic stress  Stress hormones  Brain circuitry  The impact of social support

×