Metal(R)

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Metal(R)

  1. 1. Materials for Technical Use (II): Metal<br />Department of Technology<br /> I.E.S. El Molinillo <br /> Guillena<br />© Antonio Jesús Romero<br />
  2. 2. Metal Properties<br /><ul><li> Metal is a good conductor of heat and electricity
  3. 3. High mechanical endurance
  4. 4. High fusion temperature
  5. 5. Metal is a heavy material</li></li></ul><li>Metal Properties<br /><ul><li> It´s a tough material
  6. 6. It´s a ductile, malleable material
  7. 7. Some of them have magnetic properties
  8. 8. It´s an easily recyclable material</li></li></ul><li>Classification of Metals<br />World Metal Production<br />Metals are classified in twogroups:<br /><ul><li>FerrousMetals: iron and itsalloys.
  9. 9. Non-FerrousMetals: metalsthat do notcontainiron .</li></ul>Thisisbecauseironisthemostused metal in theworld<br />
  10. 10. Ferrous Metals<br />Pure iron<br /><ul><li>Ironisanabundant metal.
  11. 11. Ironisfragile and brittle.
  12. 12. Ironrustseasily.
  13. 13. Iron has verygoodmagneticproperties. </li></ul>Due to his low endurance, pure iron is not used. So it´s mixed with a little amount of carbon obtaining ferrous alloys. <br />How changes carbon the iron properties?<br />A bigger amount of carbon in the ferrous alloy increases the hardness but decreases the tenacity, so the alloy becomes more fragile.<br />
  14. 14. Ferrous Metals: Ferrous Alloys<br /><ul><li>Soft Iron( C<0,1%)</li></ul>It´slikepureiron. At firstitwasveryusedbecauseitwaseasytoobtain. At present time it´susedtomakeelectromagnetnucleusthankstoitsverygoodmagneticproperty.<br /><ul><li>Soft, duetoitslowironcontent.
  15. 15. Silverycolour.
  16. 16. Electric and electronicapplications.</li></li></ul><li>Ferrous Metals: Ferrous Alloys<br /><ul><li>Steel ( 0,1%<C<2% )</li></ul>It´sthemostusedferrousalloythankstoitsgoodproperties.<br /><ul><li>Ductile and malleable.
  17. 17. Highmechanicalendurance.
  18. 18. Theamount of carbonincreaseshardness and fragility.</li></ul>Steel mixed with other metal increases endurance (vanadium) and becomes stainless (chrome and nickel).<br />
  19. 19. Ferrous Metals: Ferrous Alloys<br /><ul><li>Cast Iron ( 2%<C<5% )
  20. 20. Harder and more fragilethansteel.
  21. 21. It has lowductilitybutit´s amalleablealloywithmagnesium.
  22. 22. Itmelts more easilythansteel.</li></ul>It´s used to make complicated parts by sand casting and to make hard tools like rasps.<br />
  23. 23. Non-Ferrous Metals: Pure Metals<br /><ul><li>Copper
  24. 24. Red colour
  25. 25. Excellentthermal and electric conductor
  26. 26. Corrosionresistant
  27. 27. Goodwelding
  28. 28. Veryductile and malleable
  29. 29. Tin
  30. 30. Bluish white shiny colour
  31. 31. Soft
  32. 32. Corrosion resistant
  33. 33. Low melting point</li></li></ul><li>Non-Ferrous Metals: Pure Metals<br /><ul><li>Zinc
  34. 34. White colour
  35. 35. Very corrosion resistant
  36. 36. Aluminum
  37. 37. White shiny colour
  38. 38. Light and good endurance
  39. 39. No toxic
  40. 40. Cheap
  41. 41. Stainless</li></li></ul><li>Non-Ferrous Metals: Pure Metals<br /><ul><li>Magnesium
  42. 42. Very light
  43. 43. Expensive
  44. 44. Violent reaction with oxygen
  45. 45. Titanium
  46. 46. Veryexpensive
  47. 47. Endurancelikesteelbut quite lighter.
  48. 48. Biocompatible</li></li></ul><li>Non-Ferrous Metals: Pure Metals<br /><ul><li>Gold
  49. 49. Themostmalleable and ductile metal
  50. 50. Verycorrosionresistant
  51. 51. Highthermaland electricconductivity
  52. 52. Higheconomicvalue
  53. 53. Lead
  54. 54. Grey colour
  55. 55. Very soft
  56. 56. Low melting point
  57. 57. Ductile and malleable
  58. 58. Very toxic</li></li></ul><li>Non-Ferrous Metals: Alloys<br /><ul><li>Brass (Copper+Zinc)
  59. 59. Yellow colour
  60. 60. Very ductile and malleable
  61. 61. Good tensile endurance
  62. 62. Bronze (Copper+Tin)
  63. 63. Darkyellowcolour
  64. 64. More endurancethanbrass
  65. 65. Verycorrosionresistant
  66. 66. Goodsonority
  67. 67. Very fluid whenmelting, goodformolding.</li></li></ul><li>Non-Ferrous Metals: Alloys<br /><ul><li> Aluminum, Copper & Magnesium
  68. 68. Lightness and more endurancethanpurealuminum.
  69. 69. Magnesium & Aluminum
  70. 70. This alloy is more resistant than each metal.
  71. 71. Titanium & Aluminum
  72. 72. Cheaper than pure titanium parts.</li></li></ul><li>Metal Obtaining<br />Mostmetals are in nature as minerals. <br />Chalcosite: copper rich<br />Pyrite: iron rich<br />Hematite: iron rich<br />Bauxite: aluminum rich<br />Pure gold<br />Limonite: iron rich<br />
  73. 73. Obtaining cast iron and steel<br />Coal<br />Iron ore<br />Limestone<br />BlastFurnace<br />Torpedo Ladle<br />Ladle Furnace<br />Refining Furnace<br />We can obtaincastironfromthemelting of coal,iron ore and limestone at theblastfurnace , thenwecarryittotherefiningfurnaceusing torpedo ladleand ladlefurnace. In therefiningfurnacetheamount of carbontoobtainsteeldecreases.<br />
  74. 74. Obtaining of metals by electolysis<br />We use a high voltage electric current over the melted metal.<br />Puremetal is attracted by the negative electrode (remember that metal atoms are positive).<br />We can use this method to obtain metals like copper and aluminum.<br />
  75. 75. Metal Working<br />To fix and to bend<br />To measure and to mark<br />To cut<br />To split<br />To finish<br />To smooth<br />To drill<br />
  76. 76. Metal Working<br />Compass<br />Scriber<br /><ul><li>To measure and to mark</li></ul>Steel rule<br />Square<br /><ul><li>To fix and to bend</li></ul>Pliers<br />Vise, bar clamp and C-clamp<br />
  77. 77. Metal Working<br /><ul><li>To cut</li></ul>Hacksaw<br />Metal Scissors<br /><ul><li>To drill</li></ul>Drill<br />Drill bits<br />
  78. 78. Metal Working<br /><ul><li>To smooth</li></ul>Wire wool<br />Rasp<br />Metal polisher<br /><ul><li>To split</li></ul>Welding<br />Screwing<br />Riveting<br />
  79. 79. Metal Working<br /><ul><li>To finish</li></ul>Burnished<br />Primer<br />
  80. 80. Metal Working: Machining<br /><ul><li>Milling: we can use different mill bits to shape a piece from a block of metal.</li></li></ul><li>Metal Working: Machining<br /><ul><li>Turning: we can obtainmetallicpartswithcylindricalsymmetry.</li></li></ul><li>Metal Working: Machining<br /><ul><li>Computer Numerical Control (CNC): it´sto make metallic pieces automatically and with a very high accuracy.</li></li></ul><li>Molding and Metal Forming<br /><ul><li> Molding: Sand Casting</li></ul>Sand is used to make a mold and fill this with molten metal. It allows you to make complicated parts as the engine block of a car.<br />
  81. 81. Molding and Metal Forming<br /><ul><li> Lamination</li></ul>We use rolls that compress the metal to obtain sheets and metal profiles.<br />
  82. 82. Molding and Metal Forming<br /><ul><li> Stamping</li></ul>A metal sheet is compressed by a press to take the form of the mold.<br /><ul><li> Die-Cutting</li></ul>It´s cutting pieces of a metal sheet using a press.<br />
  83. 83. Molding and Metal Forming<br /><ul><li> Forge</li></ul>We use the fire and hammer over the anvil to shape the soft steel and get handmade pieces of metal.<br />Anvil<br />

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