Operand Conditioning

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Operand Conditioning

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGY PRESENTATION OPERANT CONDITIONING 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 1
  2. 2. WHAT IS OPERANT CONDITIONING Operant Conditioning is response to voluntary learning. It can be Strengthens or Weakness. Depending on Favourable or Unfavourable Values. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 2
  3. 3. OPERANT & OPERANT CONDITIONING Operant: • Any active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences. Operant Conditioning: • The behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organism’s tendency to repeat the behavior in the future. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 3
  4. 4. BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER Operant Conditioning was coined by behaviorist B.F Skinner. • He received a B.A. in English literature in 1926 from Hamilton College. • In 1948, he joined the psychology department at Harvard University where he remained for the rest of his life. • He became one of the leaders of BEHAVIORISM and his work contributed immensely to experimental psychology. He also invented the 'Skinner box,' in which a rat learns to obtain food by pressing a lever. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 4
  5. 5. SKINNER (1948) EXPERIMENT B.F Skinner studied operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals which he placed in a “Skinner Box” Skinner coined the term Operant Conditioning; it means roughly changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response. Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior. • Neutral operants • Reinforcers • Punishers 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 5
  6. 6. METHOD OPERANT CONDITIONING Operant conditioning is a method of: • Learning that occurs though rewards and punishment for behavior. • Through operant conditioning and association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Example: • Consider the case of child completing homework to earn a reward from his/her teacher or parent. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 6
  7. 7. OPERANT CONDITIONING & LAW OF EFFECTS Operant Conditioning: • Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthens or weakness, depending on its favourable or unfavourable consequences. Law of Effects: • Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated, and responses followed by negative outcomes are less likely to be repeated. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 7
  8. 8. HIERARCHY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING (COMPONENTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING) Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Positive Negative Reinforcer Primary Reinforcers Secondary Reinforcers Punishment Positive Punishment Negative Punishment 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 8
  9. 9. REINFORCEMENT & REINFORCER Reinforcement: • The process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behaviour will be repeated. Reinforcer: • Any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behaviour will occur again. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 9
  10. 10. POSITIVE & NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT Positive Reinforcers: • A stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response Negative Reinforcers: • Unpleasant stimulus whose removal from the environment leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will occur again in the future. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 10
  11. 11. PRIMARY & SECONDARY REINFORCER Primary Reinforcer: • Satisfies some biological need and works naturally, regardless of a person’s prior experience. Secondary Reinforcer: • A stimulus that becomes reinforcing because of its association with a primary reinforcement. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 11
  12. 12. PUNISHMENT Stimulus that decreases the probability that a prior behaviour will occur again. Positive Punishment: • Positive punishment weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus. Negative Punishment: • Negative punishment consists of the removal of something pleasant. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 12
  13. 13. SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Continuous Reinforcement: • Behaviour that is reinforced every time it occurs. Partial Reinforcement: • Behaviour that is reinforced some but not all of the time 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 13
  14. 14. SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Fixed-ratio schedule: • Reinforcement is given only after a certain number of responses. Variable-ratio schedule: • Reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 14
  15. 15. SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Fixed-interval schedule: • Provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, overall rates of response are relatively low. Variable-interval schedule: • Time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed. 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 15
  16. 16. THANKS FOR YOUR TIME PRESENTED BY: • SYED IBRAHIM SHAMS • RABIA MEMBERS: • MIAN JAWAD SHAH • UZMA SARBARAZ • M.YAHYA • MATIULLAH • ABDAL KHAN • ALI HAIDER • IBRAHIM ROMAN • AHMED HASSAN • M.YASIN AKTHAR • ABRAR ALI • SHAHZAIB SAIF • ABID RAZA 3/4/2014PSYCHOLOGY (OPERANT CONDITIONING) 16

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