Methods theoriesof management


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Methods theoriesof management

  1. 1. Theories of Management EDUC 4128
  2. 2. Management Theories Theorists Skinner Rogers Kounin Kohn Gibbs Brophy Wong Jones Mendler and Curwin Glasser Gordon Hewitt Canter Dreikurs Bennett
  3. 3. Classroom Management as Reacting to Discipline Problems <ul><li>Skinner’s Behavioural Management Theory </li></ul>
  4. 4. Skinner – Behavioural Management <ul><li>Definition: The practice of providing consequences for both positive and negative behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher develops a process of systematically applying rewards (reinforcements) and consequences for behaviour. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Skinner – Behavioural Management <ul><li>This model of classroom management is also known as: </li></ul><ul><li>behaviourism </li></ul><ul><li>behavioural techniques </li></ul><ul><li>behaviour modification </li></ul><ul><li>social-learning theory </li></ul>
  6. 6. Classroom Management with a Preventative Approach <ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Jacob Kounin </li></ul><ul><li>Alfie Kohn </li></ul><ul><li>Jeanne Gibbs </li></ul><ul><li>Jere Brophy </li></ul><ul><li>Harry Wong </li></ul>
  7. 7. Carl Rogers <ul><li>Experiential Learning and Self-Actualization </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences need to be relevant, non-threatening and participatory </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to be real, prize students, empathetic and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>All students strive for self-actualization and self-fulfillment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Jacob Kounin <ul><li>Effective Teaching includes group alerting and accountability, high participation and smooth transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Effective teachers are ‘withit’, use the ripple effect, overlapping and they don’t dangle, flip flop or get distracted </li></ul>
  9. 9. Alfie Kohn <ul><li>Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community” </li></ul><ul><li>There is a difference between ‘working with’ and ‘doing to’ classes </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Doing to’ classes include compliance, punishment and rewards, grading and reliance on marks or test results </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Working with” classes include active participation, high interest, discovery, and love of learning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Jeanne Gibbs <ul><li>“ Tribes” theory includes an emphasis on active listening, appreciation, mutual respect, the right to pass, a helping attitude, setting goals, monitoring progress and celebrating accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Tribes’ focus is on learning, a caring culture, a community of learners and student-centredness </li></ul><ul><li>The curriculum includes social learning skills </li></ul><ul><li>Tribes training includes various school groups including parents and administrators </li></ul>
  11. 11. Jere Brophy <ul><li>“ Classroom Strategy Study” </li></ul><ul><li>Good teaching includes enthusiasm, instructional goals, organization, and teacher as problem-solver </li></ul><ul><li>Good teachers present the concepts, include discussions and activities and give assignments to practice new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments are used to provide feedback, to note the zone of proximal development and to develop/revise the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Students need to see the purposefulness of the curriculum </li></ul>
  12. 12. Harry Wong <ul><li>‘ The Effective Teacher’ videos and ‘The First Days of School’ book </li></ul><ul><li>The first impressions are lasting </li></ul><ul><li>Classes need only 3-5 rules and the size of groups is determined by the roles to be assumed </li></ul><ul><li>Important aspects of a class are teacher readiness, meeting students, a seating plan, ‘bell work’ and immediate feedback </li></ul>
  13. 13. Preventative and Reactive Strategies <ul><li>Richard Mendler and Allen Curwin </li></ul><ul><li>William Glasser </li></ul><ul><li>Fred Jones </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Gordon </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Hewitt </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mendler and Curwin <ul><li>“ Motivating Students Who Don’t Care” </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Discipline with Dignity’ </li></ul><ul><li>To motivate students: be a role-model. nurture responsibility not obedience, be fair, give natural and logical consequences, be private, try for win-win situation, control anger, diffuse power struggles and develop a plan </li></ul>
  15. 15. William Glasser <ul><li>Reality Therapy -Control/Choice Theory </li></ul><ul><li>All humans have a need for love a feeling of self-worth </li></ul><ul><li>Steps: build a relationship, focus on behaviour not person, give student responsibility and evaluation, develop a plan, student commits to plan, follow-up and follow-through, move beyond class if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize effort ( redo, retake, revise), create hope, respect power, build relationships and express enthusiasm </li></ul>
  16. 16. Fred Jones <ul><ul><li>“ Positive Classroom Discipline”:The teacher systematically strengthens desired behaviour while weakening inappropriate behaviour by using proximity control, negative reinforcement, incentives, body language and peer pressure. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Jones’ Four Step Model <ul><ul><li>Classroom Structure: setting up classroom rules, routines and the physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit Setting: rule reinforcement through the use of body language, and low-key responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility Training: establishment of group rewards or incentives to create group responsibility and accountability for behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-up System: hierarchic organization of negative sanctions, a) Private with Student, b) Public within Classroom, c) Public with Two Professionals </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Thomas Gordon <ul><li>Teacher Effectiveness Training (T.E.T.) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the philosophy of Carl Rogers-children are inherently rational and if directed and forced teachers by teachers, they will be stifled </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions: student is internally motivated to be good, should be supported by an accepting relationship and is capable of solving own problems </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers are taught to: observe the behaviour, identify who owns the problem, demonstrate understanding, be understood, confront if necessary and use win-win problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum design involves structured activities, student ownership, communication and analysis of learning </li></ul>
  19. 19. Jean Hewitt <ul><li>“ Playing Fair” </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the society’s concept of “fair “ behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Steps: create positive environment, support student efforts for self-control,deal with problems immediately and monitor the class </li></ul><ul><li>All consequences should create learning </li></ul><ul><li>Have specific rules that consider safety and well-being of others </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid confrontations, power struggles or rumours </li></ul>
  20. 20. Reactive Strategies <ul><li>Lee and Marlene Canter </li></ul><ul><li>Rudolf Dreikurs </li></ul><ul><li>Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich </li></ul><ul><li>B.F.Skinner </li></ul>
  21. 21. Canters’ Assertive Discipline <ul><li>Definition: The teacher’s response style sets the tone of the classroom as well as impacting on the student’s self-esteem and success. </li></ul><ul><li>The Canters identified three basic response styles used by teachers when interacting with students </li></ul>
  22. 22. Canters’ Assertive Discipline <ul><li>Nonassertive Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>These teachers fail to make their needs or wants known. They appear indecisive which confuses students. They threaten but students know there will be no follow through. </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>These teachers respond in a manner that disregards the needs and feelings of students. Their response to students are negative, condescending, sarcastic or hostile. They often make unprofessional comments about students and their peers. Consequences are overly severe. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Canters’ Assertive Discipline <ul><li>Assertive Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>These teachers clearly and firmly express their needs. They have positive expectations of students. They say what they mean, and mean what they say. They are consistent and fair. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Dreikurs’ Logical Consequences <ul><li>Definition: The teacher considers the motivation and goals of the student behaviour in the development of a management plan. </li></ul><ul><li>A more humanistic approach than just focusing on discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher then applies Logical Consequences to assist students in taking responsibility for their actions and behaviours. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Dreikurs’ Goals of Misbehaviour <ul><li>Based on Alfred Alder’s concept that all behaviour had a purpose or goal, Dreikurs identified 4 student goals of misbehaviour: </li></ul><ul><li>To seek attention </li></ul><ul><li>To gain power </li></ul><ul><li>To seek revenge for some perceived injustice </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid failure </li></ul>
  26. 26. Dreikurs’ Logical Consequences <ul><li>Logical Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>Must be tied directly to the misbehaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Must not involve moral judgments </li></ul><ul><li>Must distinguish between the deed and the doer </li></ul><ul><li>Must be applied in a non-threatening manner </li></ul><ul><li>Must present choice for the student </li></ul>
  27. 27. Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich <ul><li>“ The Bumping Model” of the teacher’s responses to student misbehaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly severe responses by the teacher based on the degree of the student’s BUMP. </li></ul><ul><li>Implies that teacher must take more drastic measures as behaviour persists </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Bumping Model <ul><li>Bump1:Prevent misbehaviour by low-key response </li></ul><ul><li>Bump 2:Square off Response </li></ul><ul><li>Bump 3: Give choice </li></ul><ul><li>Bump 4: Implied choice </li></ul><ul><li>Bump 5: Diffuse the Power Struggle ( ignore, use humour…) </li></ul><ul><li>Bump 6: Informal Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Bump 7,8, 9,10: Informal contracts with other persons involved </li></ul>
  29. 29. Common Elements of “Theories” <ul><li>What do the theories have in common as prerequisites to good classroom management? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the features that differ among the theories? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ultimately… <ul><li>The teacher is responsible for establishing a community and for maintaining classroom control </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is the difference between a chaotic or caring classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Effective classroom management includes: planning and implementing teaching strategies thoroughly , keeping students actively engaged in meaningful learning, and preventing disruptions through proactive management strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>When a teacher needs to react to misbehaviour, careful thought should be applied to the situation to ensure that the self-esteem of the student is respected and to ensure that the consequences are realistic and appropriate </li></ul>
  31. 31. Good luck in your practice teaching and your second term courses!