What is learning? The acquisition of knowledge orskills through experiences,practice, or study, or by beingtaught. A process which bring about achange in the individual’s way ofresponding as result of practice orother experiences. A relatively change in behavior.
Theories of LearningIvan Pavlov (1849-1936)Classical ConditioningBF Skinner(1948 )Operant ConditioningThorndike Laws of LearningLaw of EffectLaw of ExerciseLaw of ReadinessAlbert BanduraSocial Learning
Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioningReflexive or automatic type oflearning in which a stimulusacquires the capacity to evokea response that was originallyevoked by another stimulus.
Burrhus Frederick Skinner(1904-1990)BF Skinners Operant conditioning States that consequences or rewardscan influence how often a behaviorwill occur. A behavior followed by apunishment is less likely occur again.However, a behavior followed by areward is more likely to occur.
“Skinner Box” which wassimilar to Thorndike’s puzzlebox.
Three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior.• Neutral operants: responses from theenvironment that neither increase nordecrease the probability of a behavior beingrepeated.• Reinforcers: Responses from theenvironment that increase the probability ofa behavior being repeated. Reinforcers canbe either positive or negative.• Punishers: Response from the environmentthat decrease the likelihood of a behaviorbeing repeated. Punishment weakens
SKINNERS OPERANT CONDITIONING REWARD No-REWARD No-PUNISHMENT PUNISHMENT discontinuatio Continuation of n of the behavior behaviorREWARDED PUNISHEDContinuation of discontinuation ofbehavior the behavior
Thorndike Laws ofLearning Effect The Law of The law of effect is a principle of thepsychology of learning described byEdward Thorndike (1911): It holds thatresponses that produce a satisfying orpleasant state of affairs in a particularsituation are more likely to occur again ina similar situation.
The Law of ExercisePractice strengthens theconnection, disuse weakens it.We learn by doing We forget bynot doing. The Law of Readinessif physically ready, theconnection is satisfying for theorganism. When someone is ready
Albert Bandura -SocialLearning Social learning theoryfocuses on the learning thatoccurs within a socialcontext. It considers thatpeople learn from oneanother, including suchconcepts as observationallearning, imitation, andmodeling.
General Principles of social learning theory follows:1. People can learn by observing thebehavior is of others and the outcomes ofthose behaviors.2. Learning can occur without a change inbehavior. Behaviorists say that learning hasto be represented by a permanent change inbehavior; in contrast social learning theoristssay that because people can learnthrough observation alone, their learningmay not necessarily be shown in theirperformance. Learning may or may not result
3. Cognition plays a role in learning.Over the last 30 years social learningtheory has become increasinglycognitive in its interpretation of humanlearning. Awareness and expectations offuture reinforcements or punishmentscan have a major effect on the behaviorsthat people exhibit.4. Social learning theory can beconsidered a bridge ora transition between behaviorist learningtheories and cognitive learning theories.
Educational implications ofsocial learning theory:1. Students often learn a great deal simply by observing other people.2. Teachers and parents must model appropriate behaviors and take care that they do not model inappropriate behaviors.3. Discussing with learners about the rewards and consequences of