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B. f skinner operant conditioning presntation 2


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B. f skinner operant conditioning presntation 2

  1. 1. Presentation By Group 3 On Thursday 25th July,2013
  2. 2.  Gordon Gyasi Yeboah 13001716  Collins Kanyir Kuunaangmen 13001314  Boakye Kofi Isaac 13001612  Kuusiemeh Andrews 13001693
  3. 3.  Behaviourism is a theory which explains the process of learning as the establishment of bonds or connections between stimuli and responses.  To the behaviourist, learning is a process of forming association or connection between either stimuli or responses or between responses and reinforcement.  This theory states that, human or animal psychology can be accurately studied only through the examination and analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioural event, in contrast with subjective mental state.  In short the term behaviourism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviours can be measured, trained and changed.
  4. 4.  Behaviour, whether good or bad, is viewed as a conditioned habit.  The process of behaviour change is a matter of reconditioning behaviour.  All behaviour, appropriate as well as inappropriate, is learned.  Behaviour is controlled by antecedents - events which occur before a behaviour is exhibited, and by consequences - events which occur after a behaviour is exhibited.  These antecedents and consequences can be changed in order to increase or decrease the chance that a given behaviour will continue to be exhibited.
  5. 5. o B.F Skinner coined the term operant conditioning; it means roughly changing of behaviour by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response. o Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behaviour.
  6. 6. • Neutral operants: responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behaviour being repeated. • Reinforcers: Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behaviour being repeated. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative. • Punishers: Response from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behaviour being repeated. Punishment weakens behaviour.
  7. 7.  Reinforcement is a stimulus which follows and is contingent upon a behaviour and increases the probability of a behaviour being repeated.  Positive reinforcement can increase the probability of not only desirable behaviour but also undesirable behaviour. For example, if a child whines in order to get attention and is successful in getting it, the attention serves as positive reinforcement which increases the likelihood that the student will continue to whine.
  8. 8. Reinforcement must be consistently delivered, according to a planned reinforcement schedule. If it is not, no connection will develop between appropriate behaviour and the reinforcement and the behaviour will not change.
  9. 9.  Behaviorism is a worldview that operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.” All behaviour caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning). All behaviour can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.  Behaviorism assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa) and behaviour is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement.  Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen again. In contrast, punishment (both positive and negative) decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again.  Positive indicates the application of a stimulus; Negative indicates the withholding of a stimulus. Learning is therefore defined as a change in behavior in the learner. Lots of (early) behaviorist work was done with animals (e.g. Pavlov’s dogs) and generalized to humans
  10. 10.  Constant practice – in the training session, practice is one of the most important aspects in training. Prolonged practice is needed for polishing skills acquired at training.  Trainers should provide satisfying consequences or positive reinforcement for correct responses such as praises to strengthen good responses.  Wait till trainees are ready to learn since adult learning is voluntary.  Training materials should be provided in a varied way so that novelty may be maintained.  Training objective should be stated in behavioural and observable terms. It should be specific and well defined.
  11. 11.  Training materials to be learnt should be arranged in a systematic and sequential steps from known to unknown.  Trainers should avoid lecture as much as possible and encourage question and answer participation.  Trainers must relate well with the trainees to enhance performance.
  12. 12.  B. F. Skinner  Ivan Pavlov  Clark Hull  Edward Thorndike  Albert Bandura  Fred S. Keller  Charles E. Osgood  Donald Baer  Richard J. Hernstein  Tolman (moving toward cognitivism)