The Population of The U.SGive me your tired, your poor,Your huddled masses yearning tobreathe free,The wretched refuse of yourteeming shore.Send these, the homeless,tempest-tost to me,I lift my lamp beside the goldendoor!
FACTSDue to potato rot which began in 1845, thepotato crop in Ireland began to fail.From 1845 to 1850 there were famine conditionsin Ireland.More than one million people died of starvation.One-fourth of the Irish population moved to theUnited States.
FACTSBecause of improved farming methods such ascrop rotation-and therefore greater abundance offood-the population of Europe doubled between1750 and 1850.These improvements reduced the need for farmworkers → many peasants were forced off landthat they had lived on for generations
FACTSThe passage to the United States in sailingvessels took three months, on the average, atthe beginning of the 1800s.The passage in steamships (which began to beused in the mid-nineteenth century) took tendays.
FACTSThe Russian government began to carry outpogroms (organized attacks) against the Jews ofeastern Europe.A Norwegian worker could earn up to 4-5 dollarsa day in the United States.This was more than triple the wage that thesame person could have earned in Norway atthat time
FACTSThe U.S. Congress passed the Contract LabourLaw in 1864Employers could make contracts with workers inother countries and many employers lent moneyto foreign workers to pay for their transportationto the United States.After the workers arrived, they were required topay the money back out of their wages.
Native AmericanDifferent views; time,land, possesions etc.DiseasesRemoving NativeAmericans from theirLandThe Trail of TearsDisaster at WoundedKneeThe Future for NativeAmericans?
Three great waves of immigration1815-18605 million immigrants - mainlyEnglish, Irish, Germanic, Scandinavian, and others fromnorthwestern Europe1865-189010 million immigrants - againmainly from northwesternEurope1890-191415 million immigrants – mainlyfrom Eastern Europe
Reasons for immigrationThere are two types of motivation for immigrationPush factors (reasons to leave home country)Pull factors (reasons for settling in USA)
Reasons for immigration - 1607-1830Political FreedomReligious ToleranceEconomic Opportunity -People want a better life -better job - more moneyPolitical Refugees fear fortheir livesSome want free atmosphereForced Immigration (Slavery)Family Reunification
Reasons for immigration – 1830- 1890Land plentiful, and fairlycheap.Jobs were abundant, wageshigh.Birthrate → declineIndustry and urbanization →increaseNotion that in America, thestreets were, "paved withgold,"Religious and politicalfreedom.
Reasons for immigration 1890-1914Jews came for religiousfreedomItalians and Asians came forWorkRussians came to escapepersecutionAmerica had jobsAmerica had religiousfreedomAmerica was hyped up inmany countries as "Land ofOpportunity"
Who were the immigrants? 1830-1890Nationality → Mainly Irish, English and ScandinaviansCircumstancesThe Irish → potato famine• They resented the British rule of their country.The British → look for better opportunities of work• British landlords• The British Protestantism• British taxes
The IrishSettled in New York (too poorto travel)Discriminated againstPoor living conditions (80%of Irish infants died in NewYork)Took the jobs no one wanted"Let Negroes beservants, and if notNegroes, let Irishmen fill theirplace..."
Who were the immigrants? 1890 - 1914ItaliansVoluntaryWhiteCatholics and Roman CatholicsRussiansVoluntaryWhiteJewishGreeksVoluntaryWhiteEastern OrthodoxEastern EuropeansVoluntaryWhiteJewish & Christian
Eastern/Southern Europe ImmigrantsImmigrants from SoutheasternEurope blamed for increasingproblems1880 – 1920 →New York grew by300%, Chicago → 400%,L.A→1000%These newcomers were oftendescribed by what they were not:Not ProtestantNot English-speakingNot skilledNot educatedNot liked.Anglo-Saxon Myth createdRestrictions on immigrationgradually imposedAnti-Catholic feelingsAnti-eastern European feelingsPolish immigrant assassinated theAmerican president (McKinley)
Norwegian settlersNearly 1 million between1820-1920Why?LandSocial and politicalreasonsHigher wagesIncrease in poulationCleng Peerson”Sloopers”Where?Most settled in the MidWest1851 - Treaty of Traversedes Sioux1862 – Homestead Act
Views on Immigrants” The ones who come here are usually the most stupid of their nation. Few understandour language, so we cannot communicate with them.. It has been reported that youngmen do not believe they are true men until they have shown their manhood by beatingtheir mothers. They do not believe they are truly free unless they also abuse and insulttheir teachers.And now they are coming to our country in great numbers. Few of their children knowEnglish. They bring in much of their own reading from their homeland and printnewspapers in their own language. In some parts of our state, ads, street signs, andeven some legal documents are in their own language and allowed in courts.Unless the stream of these people can be turned away, they will soon outnumber us sothat we will not be able to save our language or our government. However, I am not infavour of keeping them out entirely. All that seems necessary is to distribute them moreevenly among us and set up more schools that teach English. In this way, we willpreserve the true heritage of our country.”Benjamin Franklin about German immigrants in 1751
Immigration Laws1790 → Naturalization rule establishes →a two-year residency requirementfor immigrants wanting to become U.S. citizens.1875 → No convicts or prostitutes.1882 → Immigration from China is curtailed; ex-convicts, lunatics, idiots, andthose unable to take care of themselves are excluded. A tax (50 cents) mustbe paid by immigrants.1892→ Ellis Island opens.1903 → No political radicals, epileptics, professional beggars.1907 → No feeble-minded, tuberculars, persons with physical or mentaldefects, and persons under age 16 without parents. Tax on new immigrants isincreased ($8).1910 → No criminals, paupers, diseased.1917 → Immigrants over 16 years old must pass literacy exam.
Immigration Laws1790 → Naturalization rule establishes →a two-year residency requirement for immigrants wanting tobecome U.S. citizens.1875 → No convicts or prostitutes.1882 → Immigration from China is stopped; ex-convicts, lunatics, idiots, and those unable to take careof themselves are excluded. A tax (50 cents) must be paid by immigrants1892→ Ellis Island opens.1903 → No political radicals, epileptics, professional beggars.1907 → No feeble-minded, tuberculars, persons with physical or mental defects, and persons underage 16 without parents. Tax on new immigrants is increased ($8).1910 → No criminals, paupers, diseased.1917 → Immigrants over 16 years old must pass literacy exam.1921 → Annual immigration limited to 350 000. Quotas for each nationality are introduced.1924 → immigration limited to 165 000 annually.The nationality quota is revised to 2% of each nationalitys representation
More Recent ImmigrationCuba → 1950’s – settledmainly in FloridaSouth America →Legal/Illegal immigrants→ CaliforniaAsia
Melting Pot vs Salad BowlMelting Pot→All immigrants mixed together formthe ”American”Salad Bowl →All immigrants are American, yetkeep their cultural heritage from their ”home”