80% of immigrants throughEllis Island “admitted”to America
“New” immigrants (Slavs, Italians, Poles) contributed theprimary labor force for America’s Industrial Revolution Textile Mills, Steel Mills, Coal Mines— low pay and dangerous conditions
IV. “Nativist” Resistance (1880-1910) 8.4 million immigrants arrived 1,285,000 in 1907Immigration Restriction League, American Protective Associationfear immigrants would take jobs, prejudice based onreligious and cultural differences
Eugenics- “well-born,” belief that through selective “breeding” humans could improve their condition- poverty, alcoholism, thievery, etc. were inherited traits(favored sterilization, euthanasia of “defected” babies, execution of “feeble minded”, no intermarriage, limitation of “new” immigrants)"The population of the United States will, on accountof the great influx of blood from Southeastern Europe,rapidly become darker in pigmentation, smaller instature, more given to crimes of larceny, kidnapping,assault, murder, rape and sex immorality. And theratio of insanity in the population will rapidly increase."Charles Davenport, 1911Eugenics Records Office
“Black Stork”Dr. Haiseldenallowedchildren with“defects”to die–supported bysome as humane
Every 18 seconds a Every 50 seconds Every 16 Every 7 ½ minutesperson is born a person is put in seconds a a high grade personwho will never jail. Very few person is is born who willdevelop mentally normal persons born in U.S. have ability tobeyond a normal go to jail. do creative work8 yr. old and be fit for leadership. About 4% of all Americans.
“Every 15 seconds $100 of your money goes for the case of personswith bad heredity such as the insane feeble minded criminals and otherdefectives”
Fitter Family Contests-measured beauty, intelligence,morality, mental health
What doesthis politicalcartoon suggestto solve theimmigrant problem?
V. Congress Acts to “Protect” America from “inferior” peoples- “genetic suicide” Immigration Restriction Act of 1921 (Emergency Quota Act)- limit each nationality to 3% of census in 1910 Johnson-Reid Act 1924- limited each nationality to 2% of census in 1890***Both lows cut off most immigration to America for several decades
VI. Huge influx of immigrants lead to the development of cities (urbanization): New York, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh Factories provide jobs but workers often lived in poor conditions. Tenements- cheap housing in city multifamily dwellings
Little Italy To cope in their new surroundings immigrants often settled in ethnic neighborhoods Chinatown
Rapid growth of cities caused housing shortages and need for new public services- sewage and water systems and public transportationN.Y. City 1st subway system
Richmond, Va. installs 1st electric streetcar/ trolley
VII. Becoming AmericanImmigrants began process of assimilation- “Melting Pot”Children learn English, American customs, citizenship.Public school served an essential role in assimilation. What does this process of assimilation resemble?
QUESTION:What if immigrants worked hard and learned English and stillwere poor? What social theory attempted to explain whymany“new” immigrants lived in poor slums at the turn of the 20th? Social Darwinism- “survival of the fittest”
Jane Adams- opens settlement house inChicago called Hull House. Outlet forcharity work. Rejected blamingimmigrants for being poor.
Hull House provided classes--English, civics, cooking, dress makingkindergarten, laundry, employment, day care, legal aid, health care
Charles Loring Brace-founded New York Children’s Aid Societyalternative to slums- Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA)
Brace- takes on issue of orphansOrphan Trains--- children taken from streets andsent to western farms, Christian families