The New Frontier


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The New Frontier

  1. 1. RCSDIT
  2. 2. 1. Election of 19602. The Kennedy Mystique3. Success and Setbacks on the Domestic Front4. Warren Court Reforms
  3. 3.  1960 Presidential election beginsera of television politics TV becomes a voting tool Democratic – Catholic –Massachusetts: John F. Kennedy Republican – Quaker – Former V.P.:Richard Nixon Millions spent by Democrats andRepublicans on television andradio ads Campaigns◦ Kennedy shows concerns about the“missile gap”◦ Nixon believed foreign policy was onthe right track Televised debates influence theoutcome of the election Kennedy wins by a narrow margin
  4. 4.  Youth, optimism, andcharisma inspiredAmericans Inaugural address: “ask notwhat your country can dofor you – ask what you cando for your country” 1st president to broadcasthis press conferences liveon television
  5. 5.  New Frontier◦ Increase education aid◦ Provide health insurance to the elderly◦ Create Dept. of Urban Affairs◦ Help migrant workers Congress defeats many of hisproposals – too costly Kennedy advocated deficit spending Congress wanted to invest funds intodefense and space exploration Kennedy creates the Commission onthe Status of Women◦ Calls for the federal action againstgender discrimination and equal pay forwomen
  6. 6.  Earl Warren (Chief Justice) (WarrenCourt) activist role in social issues◦ Civil rights for African Americans◦ Freedom of the press◦ Separation of church and state◦ Rights of the accused Reapportionment –all votes wouldhave equal weight Due process – courts must treatindividuals fairly, and reasonablyand use proper procedures States could not imposed prayer inpublic schools Warren Court plays an immenserole in shaping national policy
  7. 7. 1. Global Challenges2. Bay of Pigs Invasion3. Berlin Wall4. Cuban Missile Crisis5. Death of a President
  8. 8.  Curb communism and reducethe threat of nuclear war Flexible response – build-up ofconventional weapons andtroops Supported Special Forcesdesigned to wage guerillawarfare Alliance for Progress designedto improve Latin Americanrelations◦ Cooperative aid projects to Centraland South American countries◦ Some governments made reforms,Some governments used the aid toremain in power Peace Corp established –designed to help lessdeveloped countries fightpoverty◦ Young Americans trained to assistcountries (2 years) Increased tensions caused thespace race (Kennedy pushes toput the 1st man on the moon)
  9. 9.  Cuba’s leader Fidel Castroforms an alliance with theSoviet Union Cuban exiles (La Brigada)trained to retake Cuba fromCastro 1961 – Kennedy order the Bayof Pigs Invasion – La Brigada iseither killed or captured byCastro’s army Failed attempt to overthrowCuban government
  10. 10.  Kennedy refuses to:◦ Recognize East Germany◦ Withdraw from West Berlin Berlin to prevent movementbetween the Soviet sector andthe rest of the city Symbolized the Cold Wardivision of East and West
  11. 11.  Soviets had placed long-rangeballistic missiles in Cuba Agreement reached:◦ US not to invade Cuba and takesmissiles out of Turkey◦ USSR takes missiles out of Cuba Brought the world to the brink ofnuclear war US and USSR agree to ban test ofnuclear warheads in theatmosphere Khrushchev’s fall attributed to theCuban Missile Crisis New leadership will spur on a hugeSoviet arms buildup
  12. 12.  Lee Harvey Oswald Dallas, TX Oswald killed two days later byJack Ruby The Warren Commissioninvestigates the shooting andproclaims that Oswald was thelone shooter. Conspiracy theories arise butnone gain wide acceptance Lyndon Johnson continuesKennedy’s programs