The Civil Rights Movement prior to1954Pre-1900• Slavery incolonial daysgraduallyreduced to South• Abolitionmovement andCivil War• Reconstructionand Amendments• 1896 Plessy v.Ferguson allowedthe segregationof AfricanAmericans andwhites.To 1930• Marcus Garvey,Booker T.Washington, andW.E.B. Du Bois• Founding of theNAACP in 1909• Great Migrationand HarlemRenaissance• Rooseveltunwilling to pushtoo hard forgreater AfricanAmerican rights.To 1940• A. Philip Randolphforced a federalban againstdiscrimination indefense work.• 1940s founding ofCORE• President Trumandesegregated thearmed forces.• Brooklyn Dodgersput an AfricanAmerican—JackieRobinson—on itsroster.
Didn’t the Civil War SolveEverything? At the end of the Civil War the Constitution wasamended to give Blacks more rights: 13th Amendment: Abolished Slavery 14th Amendment: Gave Citizenship and EqualProtection of the Constitution 15th Amendment: Right to Vote
Reconstruction 1876 Election Settled by specialcompromise in 1877 Southern states rewriteconstitutions Blacks lose rightspreviously won KKK emerges toharass Blacks Federal and state gov’t.ignored duties 14th and 15thAmendments notenforced
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Court ruled 7-1 thatLouisiana law segregatingblack from white trainpassengers was okay. Doctrine of “Separate, ButEqual” established legalsegregation “Jim Crow” laws spread toother facilities and states Also called de juresegregation Made Blacks second class“Jim Crow” stage name in aminstrel show
Seeking Change through the CourtsThe NAACP attacked racism through the courts.In the 1930s Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall began acampaign to attack the concept of ―separate but equal.‖The NAACP began to chip away at the 1896 Supreme Court ruling inPlessy v. Ferguson—the legal basis for segregation.Examples:• 1938 – Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, Registrar of theUniversity of Missouri•Court Rules: States must provide law schools for all qualifiedcitizens; previously there was no law school in the state forBlacks…must either create one or integrate-Missouri creates newone• 1950 – Sweatt v. Painter•Court Rules: A separate law school for Blacks, even with sameteachers was not equal to that for Whites (need access todiscussions and debates; University of Texas had to integratetheir fine law school…all other states must integrate too
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) NAACP and Thurgood Marshall began to focus ondesegregating the nation’s elementary and highschools in the 1950s. He found a case in Linda Brown of Topeka, Kansas. Similar cases working their way in other states The Supreme Court combined several schoolsegregation cases from around the country into asingle case: Brown v. Board of Education ofTopeka, Kansas. The Supreme Court was aware of this case’s greatsignificance.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) The Supreme Court heardarguments over a two-yearperiod. The Court also consideredresearch about segregation’seffects on African Americanchildren. In 1954 Chief Justice EarlWarren issued the SupremeCourt’s decision. Unanimous verdict Plessy v. Ferguson wasoverturned “Warren Court” orderedintegration with “all deliberatespeed.” What does this mean? As soon as possible schoolsshould be integratedEarl Warren
Results of Brown v. Board of Education(1954) Most of the South did not voluntarilydesegregate even after the Brown decision Some governors stalled for a decade President will have to risk political support andenforce Court’s ruling
The Little Rock CrisisIntegration The Supreme Court’s rulingdid not offer guidance abouthow or when desegregationshould occur. Some states integratedquickly. Other states facedstrong opposition. Virginia passed lawsthat closed schools whoplanned to integrate. In Little Rock, Arkansas,Governor Orval Faubusviolated a federal courtorder to integrate LittleRock’s Central High School.The Little Rock Nine On September 4, 1957, angrywhites harassed nine blackstudents as they arrived atLittle Rock’s Central HighSchool. The Arkansas National Guardturned the Little Rock Nineaway and prevented themfrom entering the school forthree weeks. Finally, President Eisenhowersent 101st Airborne to escortthe Little Rock Nine into theschool. The events in Little Rockrevealed how strong racism
Ernest Green: 1stblack student tograduate fromCentral High School. In response, nextyear GovernorFaubus closed theLittle Rock schoolsin 1958-1959 so thatintegration couldn’ttake place. Favors Whites: Greater ability toafford privateschools and tutors Parents moreeducated and ableto home school Control more jobsand can train whothey want
Emmett Till (1955) Emmett Till, 14 yrs. old fromChicago Went down to the MississippiDelta for the first time to visitrelatives. Lynched for “inappropriate”conduct towards white female Roy Bryant and J.W. Milamacquitted of murder charges Later confess in a paid interviewfor Look magazine Emmett’s death served as agalvanizing force for outragedAfrican-Americans. Many decided that the slow legalapproach of the NAACP was notenough. Motivated more people to getinvolved
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) Rosa Parks refused to give up herseat on a bus to a white personand was arrested. Not the 1st person arrested for this Volunteered at local NAACP office Black citizens organized a boycottof the bus system. Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.(MLK) selected to be theleader of the MontgomeryImprovement Association andhead of the boycott 70% of business camefrom Blacks White Citizens’ Council foughtMLK’s action Supported bus company tokeep in business After 381 days, Supreme CourtRosaParksMartin LutherKing
Some walked,while others carpooled duringthe boycott
Non-Violent Protests during the Civil Rights Movement Civil rights workers used several direct, nonviolentmethods to confront discrimination and racism in thelate 1950s and early 1960s. Boycotts Sit-ins Freedom Rides Many of these non-violent tactics were based onthose of Mohandas Gandhi—a leader in India’sstruggle for independence from Great Britain. American civil rights leaders such as James Farmerof CORE, Martin Luther King Jr. of SCLC, and othersshared Gandhi’s views.
Greensboro, NC Sit-ins (1960-) Four Black college studentswere refused service atWoolworth’s lunch counterdue to their skin color They refused to leave theirseats at a segregated lunchcounter More joined in protest in nextfew days 63 of 66 seats being filled withprotestors Ended protests with dailyprayers Dilemma: serve blacks andthey win or refuse and youlose business After this succeeded, thisbecame a popular tactic
Freedom Rides (Spring 1961) Supreme Court in 1960ordered that bus stationfacilities for interstatetravelers must be open toall passengers. Members of CORE andSNCC wanted to testcompliance with courtdecision Chartered a Greyhound bus Trip from Washington D.C. toNew Orleans. Mobs angry at the FreedomRiders attempts to use white-only facilities firebombed abus in Anniston, Alabamaand attacked riders withbaseball bats and metalpipes in Birmingham.
RESULTS:• President John F. Kennedy and Attorney General Robert Kennedy orderfederal marshals to Montgomery to protect the riders.• The Interstate Commerce Commission finally forced the integration of busand train stations.
The Albany MovementThe Movement SNCC began a sit-in inAlbany’s bus station. Over 500 demonstrators werearrested. The federal government wasinformed but took no action. Local leaders asked MartinLuther King Jr. to lead moredemonstrations and to gainmore coverage for theprotests. He agreed and was alsoarrested.The Results The police chief had studiedKing’s tactics and madearrangements to counter-actthe nonviolent protest. When the press arrived, Kingwas released. City officials would only dealwith local leaders until Kingleft. Once King left, officials wouldnot negotiate at all. The nine-month movementfailed.
Birmingham, Alabama (1963) Considered most racist, segregated large city in theSouth Nicknamed Bombingham due destruction of Blackbusinesses, churches, and homes with dynamite Martin Luther King raised money to fight Birmingham’ssegregation laws. Volunteers began with sit-ins and marches and werequickly arrested along with King Fewer African Americans were willing to join and risktheir jobs. White clergy attacked King’s actions in a newspaperad. King wrote his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.” Devises “Project C” Large scale non-violent confrontation using children to helpdraw media attention and public sympathy from around theworld Highly effective
Birmingham, Alabama (1963) More than 900children betweenages six andeighteen werearrested. Police Chief Eugene“Bull” Connor usedpolice and firefighters to break up agroup of about 2,500student protesters. The violence ofConnor’s methodswas all over thetelevision news. Attitudes shiftedagainst Southernefforts to maintainsegregation Federal negotiators
March on Washington (1963) Site of MLK’s famous “Ihave a dream” speech. 1st proposed by A.Phillip Randolph ~250,000 peoplegathered peacefully tolobby Congress andshow support for JohnF. Kennedy’s civil rightslegislation. Kennedy asked King topostpone for fear ofviolence King refused
Tragedy in Mississippi James Chaney, and hiswhite coworkers,Andrew Goodman andMichael Schwernerdisappear Search is on Presumed dead Robert Moses,Mississippi director ofSNCC offers workers achance to go home Over 90% stay to workon project President Johnsonurges full FBIinvestigation
Results• Judge Cox imposed sentence onDecember 29, 1967.• Price and Posey received sixyears.• Roberts and Bowers received tenyears.• All others received four years. In regards to his sentences, "Theykilled one nigger, one Jew, and awhite man -- I gave them all whatI thought they deserved." –JudgeCoxSignificance of Freedom Summer: First time jury finds whites guilty ofcivil rights violation
Voting Rights GrowVoting Rights Act of 1965 24th Amendment•Passed by President Johnson•Federal officials could register voters instates where discrimination continued•More than one million blacks areregistered to vote in the South by 1968.•Outlawed poll taxes in nationalelections
Most vote DemocratLoyalty to the party that has supported civil rights the mostPresident Kennedy, Attorney General Robert Kennedy and PresidentJohnson
Fractures in the MovementBlack Power• Stokely Carmichaelbecame the head ofSNCC.• SNCC abandonedthe philosophy ofnonviolence.• Black Powerbecame the newrallying cry.• Wanted AfricanAmericans todepend onthemselves to solveproblems.Black Panthers• The Black PantherParty was formed inOakland, California,in 1966.• Co-founders: HueyNewton and BobbySeale• Called for violentrevolution as ameans of AfricanAmerican liberation.• Members carriedguns and monitoredAfrican Americanneighborhoods toguard against policebrutality.Black Muslims• Nation of Islamwas a large andinfluential groupwho believed inBlack Power.• Elijah Mohammedfounded• Message of blacknationalism, self-discipline, andself-reliance.• Malcolm X offeredmessage of hope,defiance, andblack pride.
Call for Black Power Coined by StokleyCarmichael(SNCC) Encouraged pridein heritage: “Black is beautiful” Grew large afros Afro- Americanstudies Use of Africannames Symbolized byraised fist Threatening to
Malcolm X Views totally different fromMartin Luther King “meet violence withviolence” supported separatism overintegration Kicked out of the Nation ofIslam by Elijah Mohammed„63 Softened stance aboutWhite race Saw many good White peopleon religious pilgrimage Less outspoken of MLK Assassinated in 1965 inHarlem Probably by members ofBorn--Malcolm Little; becomesMalcolm X