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A Land of Immigrants
support of immigrants' rights Dec. 18 in New York City.
January 30, 2017
 Successive waves of immigration
 More than 60 million newcomers
entered the country since its early
days.
 In the past...
Why immigrate to America:
Push Factors
1. Population growth.
2. Agricultural changes
3. Crop failures.
4. Industrial Revol...
Pull Factors
 1. Freedom.
 2. Economic opportunity.
 3. Abundant land.
First European Settlements
Early Immigrants
 Spanish explorers established in the south during the 16th century
Christopher Columbus 1492
 Motives ...
Early Immigrants
 French fur traders travelled
down from Canada to the
Mississippi establishing trading
posts.
The Pilgrim Fathers
 British settlers: Most numerous group
 Left the country for religious reasons
 Puritans : radical ...
Early Immigrants:
The Pilgrim Fathers
 They were harassed by the government
-> they had to leave England.
->The Pilgrim f...
Arrival of the Pilgrim Fathers aboard the Mayflower
Puritanism
 Puritanism was a way of life (theocracy)
 Puritan spiritual life stressed self-
discipline
 Puritans saw th...
Hard Work & Self-Discipline
 To the Puritans, a person was sinful by
nature and could achieve good only by
severe discipl...
Puritans & Education
Puritans were highly literate people
Education was highly valued as a
way to fight atheism and to i...
 1636: The Puritans founded Harvard, the first
college in America
17th & 18th Centuries
 Permanent settlement on the East
Coast
A majority of British
Northern Europeans: Germans,
Swedes, ...
19th Century’s European
Waves
1st wave: Mid 19th Century
1840 ->1860: 10 million immigrants poured into
America
Northern E...
Irish Potato Famine
 In 1845,a disease attacked Ireland’s
main food crop, the potato, causing a
severe food shortage call...
19th & early 20th Century
The Second European Wave
2nd Wave: 1870 to the
1920s
 20 million Europeans :
4.5 Italians, 4 Au...
The Second European
Wave
 Newcomers had different cultures, origins
and were not protestants
Regarded with suspicion
Cons...
The Second European Wave:
Impact
Impact twofold:
Economic: Boosted US industry which
was to become world leader
Worked in ...
COMING NEXT
The New Immigration
 Immigration continued
at a high rate.
 From 1850s-1870s, more
than 2 million per decade
 1880s - F...
New Immigrants
 They Integrated
differently. Why?
 Were browner, more
Jewish, more Orthodox
Christians
 Poorer and not ...
New Immigrants
 Lived together in mini-
cities within cities.
 Consequences?
 Americans began to fear
that US a dumping...
Immigration from Asia
1. Gold Rush and Railroad Work pulled
Chinese to America.
2. Worked for less pay which created
confl...
Exclusion Act: Shutting the Doors
on the Chinese
 Blamed Chinese for 1870s Depression.
 Mob Violence
 Chinese Exclusion...
Anti-immigration
organizations
 Racist attitudes and fear of foreign workers
 Creation of Anti-Chinese groups:
• Asiatic...
Anti -Japanese
Movement
 Movement pushed for laws to prevent
immigrants from becoming legal residents,
owning land, or ow...
The Literacy Test
 IRL petitioned Congress to require
immigrants to show that they could at
least read the Literacy test ...
The Quota Acts 1920’s
 Legislation to limit new entries
 Imposed quotas according to country of origin
and number of res...
New trends in immigration
Since 1960s: radical shift.
 Leading immigrant group: Mexicans around
27%
 Settlement pattern:...
The Family Reunification Act
of the 1960’s
1965 : legislation named ‘brothers and
sisters act’:
 Preference to family reu...
The Immigration Act of
1990
Designed to balance the previous Act:
Visas are divided between:
 Family immigrants (immediat...
 Unemployment
 Economic
hardship
 Lack of
opportunity
 Famine
 Poor education
 War
 Natural disaster
 Persecution
Origin of Illegal Immigrants
Illegal immigrants
 Settlement: Same as legal immigrants :
Sunbelt states + New York
 Related issues:
 Many Americans c...
Illegal immigrants
The US has a 2000 mile border with Mexico
An increasing influx of illegal aliens.
 They cross the Rio ...
Wetbacks on the Rio Grande River
The Immigration Debate
 Immigration issues
regularly appear in the
media.
 The debate centers
around:
 The costs and be...
Immigration Ban on Specific
countries : Lessons from
History
 A presidential commission after World War II
found that Jap...
Trump’s Order
 White House argued that the temporary
suspension of entries from Iran, Iraq,
Syria, Sudan, Somalia, Libya ...
A land of immigrants
A land of immigrants
A land of immigrants
A land of immigrants
A land of immigrants
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A land of immigrants

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The 2nd and 3rd lectures for 1st year's students of English are devoted to the history of immigration to the United States from the Pilgrim Fathers to most recent legislation on immigration

A land of immigrants

  1. 1. A Land of Immigrants support of immigrants' rights Dec. 18 in New York City.
  2. 2. January 30, 2017
  3. 3.  Successive waves of immigration  More than 60 million newcomers entered the country since its early days.  In the past centuries, 80% of new comers were from Europe.  Today only 15%
  4. 4. Why immigrate to America: Push Factors 1. Population growth. 2. Agricultural changes 3. Crop failures. 4. Industrial Revolution. 5. Religious and political turmoil.
  5. 5. Pull Factors  1. Freedom.  2. Economic opportunity.  3. Abundant land.
  6. 6. First European Settlements
  7. 7. Early Immigrants  Spanish explorers established in the south during the 16th century Christopher Columbus 1492  Motives for exploration: wealth, religion and power
  8. 8. Early Immigrants  French fur traders travelled down from Canada to the Mississippi establishing trading posts.
  9. 9. The Pilgrim Fathers  British settlers: Most numerous group  Left the country for religious reasons  Puritans : radical Protestants: - They wanted to purify the Church of England of its remaining Catholic practices. (called the pilgrim fathers), formed their own churches.
  10. 10. Early Immigrants: The Pilgrim Fathers  They were harassed by the government -> they had to leave England. ->The Pilgrim fathers, left for the New World in 1620, on the Mayflower.
  11. 11. Arrival of the Pilgrim Fathers aboard the Mayflower
  12. 12. Puritanism  Puritanism was a way of life (theocracy)  Puritan spiritual life stressed self- discipline  Puritans saw their lives as a “divine mission”: God gave them the New World for they were his chosen people  This idea is the precursor to the concept of Manifest Destiny
  13. 13. Hard Work & Self-Discipline  To the Puritans, a person was sinful by nature and could achieve good only by severe discipline.  Hard work was considered a religious duty.
  14. 14. Puritans & Education Puritans were highly literate people Education was highly valued as a way to fight atheism and to instill in children the value of hard work
  15. 15.  1636: The Puritans founded Harvard, the first college in America
  16. 16. 17th & 18th Centuries  Permanent settlement on the East Coast A majority of British Northern Europeans: Germans, Swedes, Dutch
  17. 17. 19th Century’s European Waves 1st wave: Mid 19th Century 1840 ->1860: 10 million immigrants poured into America Northern Europe: British, Dutch, Scandinavians Common culture, similar languages & religion Homogeneous population Birth of the WASP concept Starting from the 1870’s Central, Eastern and Southern Europeans started to be overrepresented
  18. 18. Irish Potato Famine  In 1845,a disease attacked Ireland’s main food crop, the potato, causing a severe food shortage called a famine.  The Irish Potato Famine killed 1 million people and forced many to emigrate.  By 1854, between 1.5 and 2 million Irish had fled their homeland and came to America.
  19. 19. 19th & early 20th Century The Second European Wave 2nd Wave: 1870 to the 1920s  20 million Europeans : 4.5 Italians, 4 Austrian Hungarians, 3.4 Russians and Poles  Central and Eastern Europe over- represented
  20. 20. The Second European Wave  Newcomers had different cultures, origins and were not protestants Regarded with suspicion Considered as a potential threat to social cohesion + They were often poor, illiterate and unskilled and looking desperately for a job Blamed for lowering wages Accused of taking jobs from “old stock” American workers
  21. 21. The Second European Wave: Impact Impact twofold: Economic: Boosted US industry which was to become world leader Worked in manufacturing & building railroads Social: the number and difference created problems  Revival of nativist feelings.  The Ku-Klux-Klan reappeared
  22. 22. COMING NEXT
  23. 23. The New Immigration  Immigration continued at a high rate.  From 1850s-1870s, more than 2 million per decade  1880s - Five million.  Until the 1880s most immigrants integrated into American society relatively easily Journey across the Atlantic
  24. 24. New Immigrants  They Integrated differently. Why?  Were browner, more Jewish, more Orthodox Christians  Poorer and not used to democratic governments  More illiterate  Did not come looking for farming opportunities  Came looking for work, and were comfortable living in cities working industrial jobs.
  25. 25. New Immigrants  Lived together in mini- cities within cities.  Consequences?  Americans began to fear that US a dumping ground for Europe’s refuse.
  26. 26. Immigration from Asia 1. Gold Rush and Railroad Work pulled Chinese to America. 2. Worked for less pay which created conflicts.
  27. 27. Exclusion Act: Shutting the Doors on the Chinese  Blamed Chinese for 1870s Depression.  Mob Violence  Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)  Prohibited immigration for 10 years
  28. 28. Anti-immigration organizations  Racist attitudes and fear of foreign workers  Creation of Anti-Chinese groups: • Asiatic Exclusion League (AEL)1905 Cal. • Immigration Restriction League (IRL) in 1894 (East Coast businessmen)  Aim is to stop Japanese, Korean, and Chinese immigration  Preventing them from integrating US society
  29. 29. Anti -Japanese Movement  Movement pushed for laws to prevent immigrants from becoming legal residents, owning land, or owning business  racially inferior and products of repressive governments who would be unable to participate in a free, democratic society
  30. 30. The Literacy Test  IRL petitioned Congress to require immigrants to show that they could at least read the Literacy test in 1917  In the 1920s, restrictions on immigration increased. The Immigration Act of 1924 was the most severe  Nativists feared the newcomers were likely to be criminals, and even anarchist or Bolshevik terrorists
  31. 31. The Quota Acts 1920’s  Legislation to limit new entries  Imposed quotas according to country of origin and number of residents already in the US.  Objective: restore an ethnic balance  Restrict immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe and ban Japanese  “Old Stock” immigrants (Anglo-Saxon origin) were welcome 43% immigrants from Great Britain Birth of the idea of preferential immigration
  32. 32. New trends in immigration Since 1960s: radical shift.  Leading immigrant group: Mexicans around 27%  Settlement pattern: Sunbelt states (California, Texas & Florida)
  33. 33. The Family Reunification Act of the 1960’s 1965 : legislation named ‘brothers and sisters act’:  Preference to family reunification  Family oriented policy vs. merit oriented policy:  Skilled workers with no relatives would seek asylum in Canada or Australia where qualification is a priority US lost educated immigrants
  34. 34. The Immigration Act of 1990 Designed to balance the previous Act: Visas are divided between:  Family immigrants (immediate relatives)  Employment-based immigrants (favoring skilled workers)  Diversity immigrants (annual lottery of 50,000 green cards)
  35. 35.  Unemployment  Economic hardship  Lack of opportunity  Famine  Poor education  War  Natural disaster  Persecution
  36. 36. Origin of Illegal Immigrants
  37. 37. Illegal immigrants  Settlement: Same as legal immigrants : Sunbelt states + New York  Related issues:  Many Americans consider aliens as parasites taking advantage of social protection.  However, mostly are underpaid seasonal workers who don’t rely on social services.
  38. 38. Illegal immigrants The US has a 2000 mile border with Mexico An increasing influx of illegal aliens.  They cross the Rio Grande (called Wetbacks)  Many pregnant women cross the border to deliver their babies in the US  Hundreds of underground birth clinics.
  39. 39. Wetbacks on the Rio Grande River
  40. 40. The Immigration Debate  Immigration issues regularly appear in the media.  The debate centers around:  The costs and benefits of immigration  The cultural impact of immigration  Border security  Knowing who’s within American borders
  41. 41. Immigration Ban on Specific countries : Lessons from History  A presidential commission after World War II found that Japanese exclusion helped motivate Japan’s attack on the US in 1941.  When quotas were passed in 1924, the press in Japan declared a “National Humiliation Day”.  In 1941, as the Japanese navy steamed toward Pearl Harbor, Japanese commander stated that time has come to: “teach the US a lesson for the exclusion of Japanese immigrants…”
  42. 42. Trump’s Order  White House argued that the temporary suspension of entries from Iran, Iraq, Syria, Sudan, Somalia, Libya and Yemen are a reasonable measure to allow time for a new system of vetting to be introduced.  Denied the idea that the measures are a ban on Muslims…
  • GavrielStein

    Jan. 20, 2021
  • MaBailiang

    May. 17, 2020
  • rihabat

    Mar. 5, 2017

The 2nd and 3rd lectures for 1st year's students of English are devoted to the history of immigration to the United States from the Pilgrim Fathers to most recent legislation on immigration

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