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Us Pacific Empire


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rundown of US expansion at the turn of the century

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Us Pacific Empire

  1. 1. Pacific Empire
  2. 2. Isolationism vs. Expansionism <ul><li>Isolationism </li></ul><ul><li>George Washington’s Farewell Address </li></ul><ul><li>Expansionism </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>Navy (coaling) </li></ul><ul><li>What else? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Expansionism wins Debate <ul><li>Navy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1870 US has 12 th ranked Navy in world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1896, US has 5 th ranked Navy in world – influence of Alfred Mahan on US policy & T.R. himself </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Japan <ul><li>Japan was an isolationist country (?) </li></ul><ul><li>US wanted to trade with Japan </li></ul><ul><li>1853 Commodore Matthew Perry enters Tokyo harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese had never seen steam powered ships before—they were very afraid </li></ul><ul><li>Perry says he will return in 1 year to sign a treaty </li></ul><ul><li>1854 Japan signs Treaty of Kanagawa granting US trading rights in Japan </li></ul>
  5. 5. Early Expansion <ul><li>1867 Secretary of State William Seward convinces Congress to annex (?) Midway Island – why? </li></ul><ul><li>Seward then buys AK from Russia for $.02/acre </li></ul><ul><li>HA HA Seward’s Folly & Seward’s Icebox </li></ul><ul><li>But wait, there’s gold there & timber & fish & oil…Seward has last laugh </li></ul>
  6. 6. Samoa <ul><li>US, Great Britain, & Germany all want the island mostly for naval reasons </li></ul><ul><li>It was almost war, but a storm lead to a peaceful settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>US & Ger. Divide the island & England took some other pacific islands </li></ul>
  7. 8. Hawai’i <ul><li>Hawai’ian islands famous for their growing season & beauty </li></ul><ul><li>1820 American missionaries & planters arrive </li></ul><ul><li>Planters imported laborers from Japan, Korea & Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign population of Hawai’i grows </li></ul><ul><li>1887 planters force King Kalakaua to sign a new constitution… it gives king less power </li></ul><ul><li>1893 Kalakaua dies, his daughter Liliuokalani becomes Queen </li></ul>
  8. 9. Hawai’i <ul><li>Liliuokalani rejected new constitution, wanted Hawai’i for the Hawai’ians </li></ul><ul><li>1893, Planters revolt & rebel against Queen </li></ul><ul><li>US Ambassador to Hawai’i calls in Marines </li></ul><ul><li>Queen forced to abdicate under threat of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Planters set up their own gov’t: The Republic of Hawai’i </li></ul>
  9. 10. Hawai’i <ul><li>Should the US annex (?) Hawai’i? </li></ul><ul><li>Congress debates </li></ul><ul><li>President Grover Cleveland calls overthrow of native Hawai’ian gov’t “disgraceful” </li></ul><ul><li>1898 McKinley is elected & he annexes Hawai’i </li></ul><ul><li>Hawai’i becomes a state in 1959 </li></ul>
  10. 11. China <ul><li>China had been carved up by European countries & Japan into spheres of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, European countries took over parts of China. Inside each sphere, China could only trade with that specific country & any citizens of that country who committed a crime in that sphere could not be prosecuted by China </li></ul>
  11. 14. China <ul><li>US calls shenanigans on spheres of influence! </li></ul><ul><li>US demands “Open Door Policy” (anyone can trade with China) </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese angered about foreigners taking over their country </li></ul><ul><li>Fists of Righteous Harmony organize Kung Fu rebellion ( The Boxer Rebellion) </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion put down by international army </li></ul><ul><li>US insists on Open Door Policy again </li></ul><ul><li>1911 China descends into civil war </li></ul>
  12. 15. Spanish American War <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Cuban revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many Americans supported Cuban Independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish mistreatment of Cubans by Gen. Weyler; e.g. Reconcentration camps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2) USS Maine & Yellow Journalism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers sensationalized sinking of Maine, many Americans started to believe Spain was responsible (act of war!) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 16. WAR! <ul><li>Easy Victory for USA </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines: US warships destroy Spanish fleet (islands taken with help of Filipino rebels) </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba: Rough Riders (TR) & Buffalo Soldiers take San Juan Hill. US defeats Spain (with help from Cuban rebels) </li></ul>
  14. 17. Splendid Little War? <ul><li>Outcome: Spain frees Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Spain gives US Puerto Rico & Guam. </li></ul><ul><li>US pays Spain $20 million for Philippines </li></ul>
  15. 18. Debate in US <ul><li>Should USA become an empire with overseas possessions? </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-expansion: Need bases for Navy, overseas markets, Christianize people </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-expansion: USA is a democracy not an empire, most people in Spanish colonies were Christian already </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome: 1899, McKinley approves treaty with Spain, US gets overseas empire </li></ul>
  16. 19. What do we do with this new empire? <ul><li>Cuba: US allowed Cuba to be free, but insisted that the Platt Amendment be part of their constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Platt Amendment: US can intervene in Cuba whenever it wants & Cuba must allow US to have naval base at Guantanamo Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba not really an independent country with Platt Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Why not? (don’t write that) </li></ul>
  17. 20. Managing our Empire <ul><li>1900; The Foraker Act gave Puerto Rico a new government, but also made it a protectorate of the US. 1917 Puerto Ricans made US citizens, though many wanted to be an independent nation </li></ul>
  18. 21. Puerto Rico Today <ul><li>Puerto Rico is a US commonwealth, a majority of Puerto Ricans prefer being a commonwealth rather than independent or the 51 st state. </li></ul><ul><li>As a Commonwealth, residents of Puerto Rico lack voting representation in Congress and do not participate in presidential elections. As U.S. citizens, Puerto Ricans are subject to military service and most federal laws. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Should the USA annex The Philippines? <ul><li>What to do? </li></ul><ul><li>McKinley heard &quot;the voice of God,&quot; and &quot;there was nothing left for us to do but take them all and educate the Filipinos, and uplift and Christianize them.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Most Filipinos already Christians </li></ul>
  20. 23. The Philippine War <ul><li>Filipino rebels who had fought against Spanish (Emilio Aguinaldo) now fought for their independence from the US </li></ul><ul><li>Accused USA of hypocrisy </li></ul><ul><li>All out war in Philippines. Lasted 3-4 years </li></ul>
  21. 24. Atrocities <ul><li>US had trouble fighting a war against insurgents, both sides did unforgivable things </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;We bombarded a place called Malabon, and then we went in and killed every native we met, men, women, and children. It was a dreadful sight the killing of those poor creatures. The natives captured some of the Americans and literally hacked them to pieces, so we got orders to spare no one.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>--Anthony Michea, of the Third Artillery </li></ul>
  22. 25. The Philippine War <ul><li>220,000 Filipino rebels & civilians killed </li></ul><ul><li>4,000 American soldiers killed </li></ul><ul><li>USA annexed Philippines, gave them independence in 1946 </li></ul>