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The colonial experience
 

The colonial experience

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    The colonial experience The colonial experience Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Exploration of the New World: SPAIN
      • The 1500s was the century of SPAIN
      • Why?
      • GOLD, GLORY, & GOD
    • GOLD : Desire to find a trade route to India/Southeast Asia to break the Italian/Arab monopoly on the spice trade
    • Age of Discovery
    • http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/vasco.html
    • GLORY : The desire for adventure, born out of the Renaissance
    • GOD : The desire to convert native “heathens” to Christianity
    • DEVELOPMENTS
      • Columbus discovers the “New World” in 1492
    • DEVELOPMENTS
      • Ponce de Leon explores and names Florida in 1513
    • DEVELOPMENTS
      • Cortez conquers the Aztecs of Mexico
    • DEVELOPMENTS
      • Conquistadores explore southwest & California coast
    • Exploration of the New World: ENGLAND
      • 1600s was the century of ENGLAND
      • How?
      • The defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588
    • DEVELOPMENTS
      • Why?
      • Religious Persecution
      • The Great Puritan Migration:
      • 1625 - 1628
    • THE FIRST COLONIES
    • First attempt at colonization : Sir Walter Raleigh, The Lost Colony, in 1587
    • First permanent colony: Jamestown, VA 1607
    • It would not be until 1733 when all 13 English Colonies were established
    •  
    • Colony – a group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere
    • Regions
      • New England
      Southern Middle Colonial
    • Southern Colonies
      • Virginia (Jamestown) 1607
      • Maryland 1632
      • Carolina 1660’s
      • Georgia 1730’s
    • Common Characteristics of Southern Colonies
      • • Spread Out •
      • • Plantation Economic System •
      • • Land and Crops are not rotated •
      • • Cash Crops •
      • • Slave Labor •
      • • County form of local government •
      • • Less well organized churches and schools •
    • Agriculture was the primary economic activity in the southern colonies.
    • Farmers specialized in raising a single cash crop (grown for sale rather than farmer’s use)
    • Indentured servants (agreed to work for planters in the colonies in exchange for passage to America)  early members of the colonial workforce.
    • African slaves eventually became the primary source of plantation labor.
    • Wealthy planters dominated the South’s economic, social, and political life.
    • Women could not vote or own property . However, they were valuable sources of labor on farms and plantations.
    • Indentured servants had few rights while in bondage, and faced hardships afterward
    • Slaves were treated as property and forced to work for life without pay .
    • Virginia 1607 (Jamestown )
      • John Smith 1610
      • John Rolfe (tobacco)
      • 1619 House of Burgesses
      • First Black Workers Arrives
      • 1620 Women Arrive
      Carolina 1660’s
      • Charter from Charles II
      • North is more
      • Democratic
      • South is more
      • Economically
      • advanced with
      • port in
      • Charleston
    • Jamestown, VA The first permanent colony
      • The Virginia Company chose a governor & council to run Jamestown
    • Jamestown survived because of TOBACCO
    • The House of Burgesses (1619) – 22 men met w/ governor to advise him; the beginnings of colonial self-government
    • The House of Burgesses was the first representative body in the New World
    • The House of Burgesses is an example of representative democracy (Indirect democracy)
    • Historic Charleston, SC
    • Georgia 1730’s
      • James Oglethorpe
      • Debtors from British prisons
      • Gets support from British to keep Spanish at bay
      Maryland 1632
      • Haven for Catholics
      • Maryland Toleration Act - for Christian settlers 1649
    • Remember: Maryland was a haven for CATHOLICS (land of Queen Mary)
      • Massachusetts
      • Rhode Island
      • Connecticut
      • New Hampshire
      New England Colonies
    • Common Characteristics of New England Colonies
      • Rocky Soil / Subsistence Farming
      • Good Harbors
      • No Frontier Towns
      • Few Immigrants
      • Less Tolerant
      • Good Rivers
      • Town Meetings
    • Massachusetts
      • Pilgrims 1620 separatist Plymouth
      • Mayflower Compact
      • Theocracy
      • Puritans 1630 Boston
      • John Winthrop
      • Absorb Plymouth by 1690
      Rhode Island
      • Roger Williams
      • Baptists could not
      • stand how Native
      • Americans were
      • treated
      • Close to Religious
      • Freedom
    • Pilgrims landed in Plymouth Rock, MA in 1620
    •  
    • Plymouth was the second permanent colony in the New World
    • Plymouth colony recreated
    • The Mayflower Compact
    • Signing of the Mayflower Compact
    • The Mayflower Compact established that the 41 men would make the laws for the community
    • The Mayflower Compact established a direct democracy
    • The legacy of the Mayflower Compact in New England is town hall meetings
    • The Puritans
      • The Pilgrims were Puritans
      • The Puritans were followers of John Calvin
      • They wanted to establish a theocracy – a government run to enforce the laws of God
      • NO separation between Church & State
      • The Puritans wanted to establish a model Christian society
      • The Puritans persecuted and drove out non-believers
    • The Puritans
    • Connecticut
      • Outcast from Mass.
      • Conn. New Haven Thomas Hooker
      • Fundamental Order of Connecticut, which was the 1 st Constitution written.
      New Hampshire
      • Broke away from Mass. due to fur traders and trappers
    • The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: First Colonial Constitution (1639)
    • A diversified economy developed in New England. Rocky soil and cold temperatures limited farming .
    • Good harbors led to shipbuilding , fishing , and iron production (major industries) Industries  growth of cities  problems (sanitation, overcrowding, etc)
    • Merchants and business owners were the most powerful members of society.
    • The absence of large-scale agriculture meant fewer slaves were brought to the North Free blacks were common, but enjoyed fewer rights than whites
    • Less tolerant due to Puritan influence
    • Middle Colonies
      • Pennsylvania
      • New York
      • New Jersey
      • Delaware
    • Common Characteristics of Middle Colonies
      • “ Bread Basket”
      • Most fertile soil (Penn & New York)
      • Good harbors and rivers
      • Immigration in 1700’s
      • led to diverse population
      • Town meeting and County government
    • Pennsylvania
      • Quaker have started by William Penn
      • 1682 founded Philadelphia
      New York
      • Taken from the Dutch New Holland, turned over to the British Duke of York
    • New Jersey
      • Grant of land to two proprietors
      Delaware
      • Founded by Swedes taken over by Penn.
    • Characteristics of ALL Colonies
      • Better off economically
      • Highest standard of living
      • More Religious and Political Freedom
      • Economic Opportunities
      • Same rights as British (according to Jamestown Charter)
      • 3000 miles away from “Home” (Britain)
    • The colonists had no separate identity (the development of an “American” identity will come later)
    • Religion in the colonies
      • Although many colonists came to America seeking religious freedom, it was hard to find .
      • Many colonies had an “ official ” church (Puritan in New England, Anglican in Virginia, etc.)
      • Challenging the authority or beliefs of the church could lead to severe punishment or expulsion.
      • Great Awakening – 1740s religious revival  creation of new churches, greater religious toleration, and new colleges (Princeton, Brown)
    • Education in the Colonies
      • New England – universal education so everyone could read the Bible and understand the laws.
      • Middle Colonies – Education was widespread, but not universal.
      • Southern Colonies – limited to children of wealthy; distances between farms made schooling difficult.
      • Most women received little formal education.
      • Early colleges founded to train men for ministry .