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Honors U.S. History First Semester Exam Study Guide


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Honors U.S. History First Semester Exam Study Guide

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Articles of Confederation • Government after the 2nd continental congress declares independence • Our first government as Americans • Ratified by 13 states • Loose confederation • Had congress, but no executive branch and left judicial branch to the states • Each state had one vote • Amendments of the Articles required unanimous ratification • Important bills required nine states to ratify • No power to regulate commerce • Couldn’t enforce taxes Constitutional Convention • redo of the Articles • called for House of representatives and Senate • President • State representatives • 3/5 compromise • end slave trade • legislative, executive, and judicial branch • paper money Land Ordinance of 1785 • determined how to divide land • divided into townships 6 mile squares, further divided into 36 section of 1 sq mile, the sixteenth square was sold to benefit public schools Northwest Land Ordinance of 1787 • determined how to govern land • the Northwest Territories and gave the land to the government, the land could then be purchased by individuals; when a territory had 60,000 people, it might be admitted by Congress as a state, with all the privileges of the 13 other states. Shays’s Rebellion • Farmers in western Massachusetts were losing their farms because of taxes • They tried to demand cheaper paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeover • The uprising was crushed, but left fear in the propertied class of mobs Virginia Plan • “large state plan” • Proposed by Virginia • Was first pushed forward as the framework of the constitution
  2. 2. • Said that arrangement in congress should be based upon a state’s population Chapter 10 Hamilton’s financial system • He wanted to shape the financial policies of the administration so it favors the wealthy, so that they would lend it money and support it • Wanted to keep national debt plus assume the states debts (wanted national credit) • Set tariffs and excise tax • Wanted a Bank of the United States that could print money and provide a stable national currency and would also be a place where the treasury could deposit money Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 • Issued by Washington • Democratic republicans wanted to get into the French and British war and fight for France • The federalists opposed • Washington issued proclamation to state America’s • He was backed by Hamilton Jay’s Treaty • The British promised to evacuate the chain of posts on the US land and pay damages for seizing American ships • Americans promised to pay the debts owed to British merchants before the revolution • Everyone hated it because: - the British never promised to stop seizing ships - they continued to sell weapons to the Indians - North gets the money from the ships, the south pays the debt Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • published by the democratic republicans (Jefferson and Adams)
  3. 3. • argues that states created a central government and therefore they have the authority to nullify anything the central government did • The federalists responded by saying the people of the states created the central government, therefore central government has authority (Supreme court is only one that can declare something unconstitutional) Chapter 11 Revolution of 1800 • Thomas Jefferson beat John Adams in the election of 1800 • The first change of political parties • Brought back ideals of revolution (People didn’t know what to expect) • Not actually a revolution Marbury v. Madison • Showed that Supreme court had the final authority in determining the meaning of the constitution Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson sent James Monroe to join Robert Livingston in Paris to buy as much land as he could for $10 million • Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana because: - He didn’t conquer Santo Domingo - Britain controlled the seas and they could take over it • Got a all of land for $15 million Embargo Act • passed by Jefferson • banned exportation of any goods to any countries - wanted to force France and England to respect America because thought they were dependent on American trade • Only hurt American profits • Hated by everyone Tecumseh • Shawnee
  4. 4. • With his brother, unified many Indian tribes in a desperate final battle with the settlers • Allied with the british Chapter 12 War of 1812 • Part of Napoleonic Wars (but much more significant) • Between America and Great Britain • Lead to the discovery of the use of a Navy • Boost Nationalism • Stalemate (No victory on either side) Battle of New Orleans • Final major battle in War of 1812 • American victory • Restored America’s honor, Promoted nationalism, increased self-confidence Hartford Convention • Secret meeting between Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island • Wanted the government to pay back for lost trade • Wanted 2/3 states needed to vote in order to embargo • Federalists and New England threatened to leave the Union because it was viewed as treason • Marks the death of the federalist party Rush-Bagot Agreement • Canadians didn’t like America and Britain’s naval battles on the Great Lakes • The agreement limited naval armament on the lakes • Set United States and Canada’s boundary American System • Created by Henry Clay • Not popular • Calls for: 1) National Bank 2) High protective tariffs 3) Internal improvements (roads and canals)
  5. 5. Missouri Compromise • Introduced by Henry Clay • Decided whether or not Missouri would be admitted as a slave state • Missouri was admitted as slave state, but maine was admitted separate as a free state • This made an equal 12 free and 12 slave state ratio • Also forbade slavery in the remaining territories in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36’30 line except for Missouri McCulloch v. Maryland, Cohens v. Virginia, Gibbons v. Ogden • Reduced state power/Increase federal power Fletcher v. Peck, Dartmouth College v. Woodward • Increased importance of contracts/preserve property Chapter 13 Corrupt Bargain • In election of 1824, no candidate won the majority of electoral votes • Henry Clay was eliminated for having least amount of votes • Crawford had stroke, so was eliminated too • Constitution says that House of Reps has to choose the winner • Henry Clay was speaker of the house and convinced them to vote for John Quincy Adams (Clay hates Jackson) • Adams then made Clay Secretary of State • Public felt that this was “corrupt bargain” because Jackson received the popular vote Spoils System • Democratic-Republicans controlled the white house when Jackson was elected • They replaced the people in offices with their own people (The common man) - They were illiterate and incompetent • This system of rewarding supporters with jobs in the government is known as spoils system Tariff of 1828 • “Tariff of Abominations”
  6. 6. • Jackson’s supporters pushed for super high tariff so it wouldn’t pass and John Quincy Adams would look dumb, but it passed • Southerners hated it because it was extremely high and they felt it discriminated against them Nullification Crisis • Congress passed a slightly lower tariff (still not good enough) • South Carolina wanted tariff to be null and void in the state because claimed it was unconstitutional • SC threatened to leave the Union if customs duties would try to be collected by force • Andrew Jackson threatened to attack and sent army down there • Compromise tariff was issued to avoid a civil war and South Carolina was happy Force Bill • Congress passed after crisis • It authorized the president to use the army and navy to collect federal tariff duties Cherokees and Indian Removal • Jackson’s Democrats were committed to western expansion, but this meant confrontation with the Indians who inhabited the land east of the Mississippi • The Cherokees made great efforts to learn the ways of the whites - Adopted system of settled agriculture and notion of private property - Missionaries opened schools among them - Sequoyah devised an alphabet - Got a written constitution that provided for the 3 branches of government - Became prosperous cotton planters and slave holders • Georgia declared Cherokee tribal council illegal and asserted its jurisdiction over Indian lands and affairs • Cherokees took this to the supreme court and their rights were upheld • Jackson wanted the Indian open lands, so he ignored the courts decision and removed the Indians in order to expand Chapter 14 Irish Immigration • Ireland’s potatoes rotted (they were very dependent on potato crops)
  7. 7. • They all became diseased and hungry and fled to America • They were poor so had to settle in larger seaboard citied (Boston and NY) • Their lives sucked - Crammed into slums - Scorned for being catholic - Couldn’t find jobs because no one liked them “No Irish need apply” - Children couldn’t be educated because money needed to be saved to find homes • lives gradually got better • They liked politics and began to gain control of powerful city machines German Immigration • Crop failures and collapse of the democratic revolutions brought them to America • Settled in middle west (Wisconsin) • Lives did not suck, they were not poor • Contributed to the elevation of American political life • Weren’t as politically strong as Irish • Contributed to American culture • Preserved their culture (were kind of cliquey) Cotton Gin- • Invented by Eli Whitney • Slavery was dying out, but the invention of the cotton gin prompted plantation owners to keep their slaves because harvesting cotton now produced a high profit • Invention separated seed from short-stable cotton fiber quickly and effectively Commonwealth v. Hunt • Factory workers were forbidden by law to form unions to raise wages • With Jacksonian democracy came the rights of laboring man to vote • President Van Buren established the ten-hour work day law • This Supreme Court ruling said that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were honorable and peaceful. Chapter 15 Charles Grandison Finney • One of the greatest revivalist preachers • held audiences spellbound with his message
  8. 8. • Encouraged women to pray outloud in public Neal Dow • Strong believer in temperance • Sponsored for law prohibiting drinking (Maine Law of 1851) Maine Law of 1851 • Drinking became a problem among women, clergymen, and members of Congress • Banned manufacture and sale of liquor in Maine • Many other states followed Maine’s example • People were not happy without their booze and became violent • Law did not last Transcendentalism • movement that resulted from the liberalizing Puritan theology • rejected theory that all knowledge comes to mind through senses, but believes that truth transcends the sensed and cant be found just by observation Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Manifest Destiny • Idea that God led the American people to spread their democratic institutions over the entire continent and over South America as well • Supported by democrats • This idea came about in the 1840’s and 1850’s after Polk was elected (he wanted to protect Texas) Texas Annexation • Tons of American settlers filled the region north of the Rio Grande, which resulted in a successful drive for Texas Independence • Election of 1844 dealt with issue of admitting Texas to the union - pro-slavery south wanted it
  9. 9. - anti-slavery north objected it • President John Tyler signed a joint resolution just before leaving office so he would get credit, but then James K. Polk has to deal with the upcoming war. Mexican War • Polk wanted to buy California (The bear flag republic) from Mexico • Mexicans were still angry about annexation of Texas • Offer to buy Mexico was rejected • Polk ordered 4000 men under General Zachary Taylor to the Rio Grande • Polk asked congress to declare war on Mexico of the basis of unpaid claims and rejection of purchasing California - However, Mexican troops attacked American troops that night and war was declared Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo- • Ended war with Mexico • Signed by Nicholas P. Trist • Gave Texas and California to America • The United States paid Mexico paid - This was Trist’s mistake, he was only supposed to end the war not give him money • South was upset because Mexico was anti-slavery Chapter 18 Free Soil Party • Formed by antislavery men of the North who didn’t trust Cass or Taylor • Supported internal improvements • Believed that slavery would demolish the wage labor and the chance for the American worker to own property 1848 Presidential Election- Zachary Taylor- Whig (Won) Martin Van Buren- Free Soil Lewis Cass - Democratic
  10. 10. California Gold Discovery and Statehood • The discovery of gold in California brought violence and disease that the small government in California couldn’t handle. • The Californians needed more protection because of this. So, they bypassed the territorial stage of state, drafted their own constitution (excluding slavery) and applied to Congress for admission to the union in 1849. (This makes them a state) • Southerners objected to California’s admission as a free state because it would tip the balance of free and slave states in the senate. Seventh of March Speech - Written by Daniel Webster - Helped turn the North toward compromise the Mexican cession territory - Banking and commercial centers of the North liked it - Free-soilers and abolitionists viewed Webster as a traitor Kansas-Nebraska Act • Douglass wanted northern route railroad, but south disagreed • He compromised-- split the territory in 2 (Nebraska and Kansas) and opened it up for popular sovereignty • Repeals Missouri Compromise • Causes “Bleeding Kansas” Chapter 19 Harriet Beecher Stowe • From north • Raised by strong abolitionists • Never experienced slavery except for one encounter in her childhood • Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin - Fictional book - Popular in the North, banned/burned in the South - Purpose was to show cruelty of slavery and how it broke up families Election of 1856- John Fremont- Republican James Buchanan- Democrat (won)
  11. 11. Millard Filmore- Know-Nothing James Buchanan - Democratic - Pro popular sovereignty - Not influenced by Kansas-Nebraska Act - Won election of 1856 Bleeding Kansas • Caused by Kanas-Nebraska Act - It was decided that popular sovereignty would be help in the state of Kansas • Everyone ran into Kanas to get it written in constitution as a slave state • Northerners and Southerners send people, money, and rifles(Beecher’s Bibles) • Causes Series of violent events Dred Scott v. Sanford – • Ruled that Dred Scott was a black slave and therefore not a citizen. • Non-citizens couldn’t sue in federal courts • US congress could not prohibit slavery in federal territories • Fact that he was a citizen on Missouri was irrelevant • Chief Justice Roger B. Taney wrote the decision Lincoln-Douglass Debates • Lincoln challenged Douglass to a series of debates when running against him for senator • Douglass seemed more impressive • Most famous debate was in Freeport - Lincoln asked if the people said no to slavery, who would prevail: court of people? Freeport Doctrine • Douglass’ response to Lincoln at Freeport • He said that slavery would stay down if the people voted it down, regardless of how Supreme court ruled
  12. 12. • This response led Douglass to victory for Senator John Brown • Slaughtered people in Pottowattamie Creek and Harper’s Ferry to show hate for slavery • Was kind of psycho • Hanged after Harper’s Ferry • Respected by north because he was an earnest reformer that was working for a righteous cause Election of 1860 • Ended up being a South v North election • No national parties (Democrats are no longer national - Bad because nothing is holding the country together Abraham Lincoln – Republican (Won) Stephen A Douglass – Northern Democratic John C. Breckinridge – Southern Democrat John Bell- Constitutional Union Abraham Lincoln • Republican • Pro Popular Sovereignty • Not experienced or exceptionally impressive • Lost to Douglass for Senator • Won 4-way election of 1860 Stephen A. Douglas • Senator • Pro Compromise of 1850 • Responsible for Kansas-Nebraska Act • Won debates with Lincoln • Wrote Freeport Doctrine • Lost to Lincoln in election 0f 1860 Crittenden Compromise • Meant to appease the south • Lincoln rejected because his platform that got him elected was against slave expansion
  13. 13. Alexander Hamilton Andrew Jackson Antebellum Southern Society (both white and black) Connecticut Compromise Cult of Domesticity Free blacks (North and South) Horace Mann Hudson River School of Art Jackson’s Bank War Maine land dispute Market Revolution and growth of cities Nativism Secessionism Transportation Revolution Young Guard/Old Guard South Carolina Exposition Lewis and Clark expedition Democratic Party Whig Party John C. Calhoun Daniel Webster Thomas Jefferson William H. Seward Key Concepts Describe the government of the Articles of Confederation and summarize its achievements and failures.
  14. 14. Describe the basic ideas and goals of the Founding Fathers in the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention and how they incorporated their fundamental principles into the Constitution. Describe the contrasting membership and principles of the Hamiltonian Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans, and how they laid the foundations of the American political party system. Describe the following policies of Andrew Jackson’s administration. Nullification Crisis Bank War Indian Removal Spoils system Describe the different ways that each of the new mass political parties, Democrats and Whigs, promoted the democratic ideals of liberty and equality among their constituencies. What were the platforms of each of these parties and what kinds of people supported these two parties. Describe the ways in which the American government contributed to and promoted industrial growth and economic expansion in the early nineteenth century. Point out the major terms of the Compromise of 1850 and indicate how this agreement attempted to defuse the sectional crisis over slavery.