Topic 02.Colonization, Towards Revolution


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Topic 02.Colonization, Towards Revolution

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Topic 02.Colonization, Towards Revolution

  1. 1. United States History Topic 02: Colonization, Towards Revolution Mr. Michael Meechin Celebration High School Social Science Dept.
  2. 2. First Colonies <ul><li>There are major differenced between the founding of the Northern colonies and the Southern colonies; </li></ul><ul><li>Jamestown [1607] was founded by a joint stock company; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JSC’s are formed when investors pool their monies to fund the exploration; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King James authorized several joint stock companies to set-up colonies… </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Virginia Company <ul><li>The first JSC was the Virginia Company; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Virginia Co. settles Jamestown in 1607, as the first permanent English colony in the United States; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is Plymouth credited with this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a bias in US History: early historians are trained at Harvard and credit the Plymouth colony; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We get Thanksgiving from this credit… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Virginia Company <ul><li>Jamestown was a proprietary colony… a business colony; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jamestown almost fails in the first year; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonists found iron pyrite, this caused them to mine instead of planting food… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the settlers were nobles and had no knowledge of farming; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They discovered Native storages of food and created problems with them right away; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The colonists also had terrible sanitary conditions… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Jamestown Savior <ul><li>The colony was saved by John Smith; have you heard of him? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith was a 28 year old war hero… according to himself; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was exactly what the colony needed… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith did several things: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enforced discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced building and planting to be completed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated with the Natives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no truth to the Disney version… sorry = ( </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Jamestown Savior <ul><li>Smith did not last long, he was recalled in 1609, after colonists complained about him; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That winter was terrible for the Jamestown colonists; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food was nowhere to be found; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists have found teeth marks in the bones of Jamestown remains… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problem was that the Virginia Co. had sent skilled craftsmen, not laborers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of the company was to make money, period… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Northern Colonies <ul><li>In comparison, the Northern colonies were also settled by joint stock companies; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The major difference was that the Northern colonies were established on religious motives… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There was a religious war in Europe between the Church of England and the Catholic Church; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some did not like the new Church of England; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The puritans believed in purifying the corruption in the Church… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Separation Takes Place <ul><li>There were two groups of Puritans, the Separatists and the non-Separatists; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separatists wanted to separate from the Church completely; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They called themselves pilgrims, as they were on a pilgrimage to develop a church of their own… </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Separation Takes Place <ul><li>The Pilgrims convinced the Plymouth Company to fund their colony; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They established Plymouth in 1620; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They did not have the same problems with Natives as did Jamestown, as there had been an epidemic in 1618-19… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, the winter was a Boston winter and half of the colonists die the first year; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The colony will wind up being absorbed by other colonies in the area founded by non-Separatists… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Separation Takes Place <ul><li>The Massachusetts Bay Colony was made up of six towns in the Boston area; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These people believed that it was God’s purpose to settle in this new land; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was their job to show the world how to act… </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. How the South Became the South, the North the North <ul><li>What are some differences between the Northern and Southern states? </li></ul><ul><li>Differences begin during colonization; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jamestown will begin to excel when tobacco becomes their “cash crop”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People settle on plantations on the rivers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People travel via river, so major roads do not develop; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This process also slows the development of cities and towns… </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How the South Became the South, the North the North <ul><li>In contrast, the New England colonists sailed with the intent of living in communities; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious beliefs drove the settlement of towns; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was actually illegal to live alone; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was your neighbors responsibility to tell you that you were a sinner; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In conclusion, the South spread out along the river systems, while the North settled in villages and towns along man-made roads… </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Southern Population <ul><li>Because of the plantation system in the South, indentured servitude begins; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indentured servants signed over their freedom for a term of seven years; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They would serve a master in the colony in exchange for travel and board; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When freed from servitude they would receive 50 acres of land… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Masters preferred that servants be young males, this boosts the male population in the South… </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Southern Population <ul><li>Due to the heavy male population the South will see fewer marriages; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer marriages mean fewer children and families; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists did not want slaves; they were too expensive and people died too quickly; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most servants died in the first year, the seasoning year… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With the young males in charge it creates and unstable society; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Frat House analogy… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Northern Population <ul><li>The Northern population was different because of religion; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonists have a reason to succeed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists travel together as families and extended families; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This system of settlement helps to create a stable society… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks of people were already built in; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People want to take care of each other because they know one another; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The North does not need servants due to the lack of farming… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Northern Population <ul><li>The Northern colonists were more literate than in the South; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They believed that you must be able to read the Bible; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education was stressed from a young age; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Northern colonists quickly built public schools in their towns; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This did not exist in the South due to the lack of children and families… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Toward Revolution
  18. 18. Loosing Control <ul><li>In the late 1600s, things changed in England; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The French and Indian War occurs in England, and the British find out quickly war is expensive; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British debt had grown huge and they needed to figure out how to gain more income; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new British Empire was vast and needed to be protected; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This would be expensive, so people must be taxed… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Loosing Control <ul><li>The British decided that they would tax the colonists more and tighten control; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonists had smuggled lots of goods into the colonies; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They British wanted more control and they felt the colonial govt’s were too independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They come up with a two prong approach to change things; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The British were alre ady paying 25% more in taxes than were the colonists… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. A Military, Standing By <ul><li>The British Gov’t decided that they would keep a standing Army in the colonies; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists were forced to pay for housing troops and pay to supply them as well; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fear was that the colonies could be attacked by either the French citizens in Canada or the Natives… </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Freeze, Don’t Move <ul><li>The second move by England is the Proclamation of 1763; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The line marked where white settlers could not go; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It ran down the East coast along the Appalachian Mountains; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The secondary result was that the Proclamation kept colonists on the East coast and easier to supervise… </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Bad Policy <ul><li>Both policies enraged the colonists; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For instance, some colonists had already moved west of the Proclamation line; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other colonists were upset with the troops in the colonies; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relations between the British and the colonists will only get worse… </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Sugar Act <ul><li>1764 the British gov’t passed the Sugar Act [Molasses Act]; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase tax revenue on sugar being shipped to the colonies; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smuggling was a major problem; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British lowered the tax, but toughened the system of enforcement; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the tax was more expensive it was cheaper to smuggle and bribe officials than to pay the tax; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If caught, offenders go to Vice Admiralty Court… in Nova Scotia; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It also implemented new enumerated products… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Sugar Act <ul><li>The southern colonies were not impacted very much by the Sugar Act; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The northern colonists were willing to fight the act, as it impacted them greatly; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They organized boycotts of English manufactured goods; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants in NY and Boston argued that once the British see they can do what they want they will abuse the system… </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Stamp Act <ul><li>Stamp Act taxed all valid legal documents, newspaper, playing cards, any paper sold commercially; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given a stamp to show you paid the tax; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The stamp act was very unpopular; it was put into place during a downturn in the economy; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was an internal tax and this was the job of colonial gov’t; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies had no elected reps. to British Parliament; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore the colonists thought they had no right to tax; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The British gov’t said it was okay because of virtual representation… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. “ American” Reaction <ul><li>The colonists reacted strongly because they did not believe that the Parliament had the right to govern the colonies; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists believed in a form of Whig ideology, with constitutional ideas; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They believed that gov’ts naturally became oppressive; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When gov’ts become oppressive the people have the right to change it, by revolution if necessary; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Whig ideals held on in America, not in England… </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. “ American” Reaction <ul><li>Protests and newspaper editorials ripping the British were all around the colonies; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They would hold mock trials for tax collectors and mock funerals for “liberty”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They would “pop” the houses of stamp and tax collectors; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They would burn down the stamp warehouses; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial legislatures passed formal protests to Parliament… </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. “ American” Reaction <ul><li>Tensions begin to increase; several stone throwing incidents and snowball throwing in the Northern colonies; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The colonists were clashing with the soldiers, especially in Boston; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They complained about the treatment of women in Boston by the soldiers; the soldiers also took jobs from Bostonians; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension on March 2 at the docks, soldiers are confined to barracks for the weekend; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monday people gather at the Customs House; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seven more soldiers show up and they load their weapons, Captain Prescott arrives and fix bayonets… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. “ American” Reaction <ul><li>John Adams will defend the soldiers for murder; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are acquitted, two convicted of manslaughter and branded with an “m” on their thumb; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1770 -72 a quiet time, no one grievance to unite the colonies; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston Tea Party December 1773; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The response was the closing of Boston harbor; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rearranged the Massachusetts gov’t making all gov’t positions appointed by the crown… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The End of Colonial Life <ul><li>Thomas Gage was made the governor of Mass; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was in charge of all British soldiers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In essence the Mass gov’t became a military gov’t; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Coercive Acts were one of the last straws; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the colonies ever get out of line this is how the Crown will handle it; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists were not unified in what to do; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They will hold a meeting in Philly known as the 1st Continental Congress, all colonies will send delegates except Georgia… </li></ul></ul></ul>