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APUSH Lecture Ch. 22


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APUSH Lecture Ch. 22

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APUSH Lecture Ch. 22

  1. 1. “THE NEW ERA” Chapter 22
  2. 2. THE IMPACT OF WWI • The 1920's are a decade that opposed war and the appeasement of Hitler in the 1930's can be traced to the casualty figures and the horror of WW I. Nearly an entire generation of men disappeared during that war - “The Lost Generation” • The Civil War and later WWI had efficient hospitals near the battles and hundreds returned with amputated limbs and debilitating injuries for the first time in history. Those people were continuing reminders of the horrors of war. • The end of World War I brought a cumulative disillusionment as Americans wondered if the sacrifice of the conflict was worth the fragile and questionable peace. a. Worker rights were suspended to speed labor production b.Loss of Life: 20 million due to battle; 50 million due to Spanish Influenza c. Political Upheaval: Germany, Russia, Middle East
  3. 3. THE IMPACT OF WWI • Census of 1920 revealed that more Americans lived in urban centers than in rural settings
 a. 51% of the population lived in centers of 2500 or more
 b. Urban centers began to dominate American culture.
 c. The prosperity of this era illustrated the new urban dominance with the rise of skyscrapers, new housing and over 600,000 miles of road construction.
 d. The "progress of the age," automobile, radio, movies, and numerous new electrical appliances, centered in the metropolis and reached rural areas much later • Frederick Jackson Turner had predicted that with the closing of the frontier, the US would become more urbanized and change its values, previously rooted in a large frontier setting. • A resurgence of US business undermined reforms won by the previous generation • A rush toward rampant materialism replaced the idealism and social consciousness of the progressive era
  4. 4. THE REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTS “A RETURN TO NORMALCY” Harding's Early Actions - Harding knew that he lacked the great leadership qualities of a TR, and he was not a known intellectual like former President Wilson, but he desired popularity.
 a. He pardoned many still in jail for violating the Sedition Act including Eugene Debs b. He pressured businesses like US Steel to move to an eight-hour shift (although also due to efficiency advances) c. Expanded loans to struggling farmers d. Highway Act of 1921, Harding put $162 million dollars into the economy. Harding believed the ‘motor car’ was symbolic of continued American progress.
  5. 5. THE REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTS “A RETURN TO NORMALCY” e. Revenue Act, 1921 - Harding under the guidance of Andrew Mellon, dramatically cut taxes to wealthy Americans (73% to 25%) and later corporations from 65% to 50% Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon served all three Republicans in the 1920s 
 (1) His tax policies favored the wealthy classes, believing investments would benefit the entire economy.
 (2) Mellon favored high tariffs to support American industry • Fordney-McCumber Tariff 1922
 (a) protected infant industries like toys, rayon, chinaware, chemicals
 (b) raised the average tariff to 38.5%
 (c) put heavy duties on many agricultural products.
 a. Attorney General William Daugherty ("Darty") did not vigorously pursue investigations of his buddies as scandals began to surface involving many of them.
 (1) Sold pharmacy prescriptions to bootleggers to acquire government controlled alcohol and kept the proceeds
 (2) He was forced to resign from office at the request of Coolidge in 1924 but was acquitted of any wrongdoing in 1927. • b. Although having only a minor position in the government, Jessie Smith , Daugherty's best friend and a good friend of Harding, became an influence peddler, selling political offices and procuring government favors.
 (1) As the bag man he delivered money to corrupt judges for favorable disposition of cases
 (2) When exposed in 1923, Smith committed suicide.

  7. 7. • c. Veterans Bureau -- Charles R. Forbes and assistant Charles F. Cramer siphoned off millions of dollars in hospital construction, allowing overcharges for buildings and supplies (graft)
 (1) When exposed, Charles Cramer committed suicide on 15 March 1923.
 (2) Forbes was sentenced to 2 years for bribery, fraud, and conspiracy and fined $10,000 • d. Teapot Dome Scandal 
 (1) Secretary of Interior Albert F. Fall in 1921 arranged to transfer naval oil reserves from the Department of the Navy to his department including reserves at Teapot Dome WY and Elk Hills CA.
 (a) Apr 1922 - These reserves were then secretly leased to Harry Sinclair's Mammouth Oil Co.
 (b) Fall received at least $400,000 in "loans," cash and negotiable securities.
 (2) Sen John B. Hendricks asked Fall to explain the highly questionable transaction.
 (3) Fall was indicted for bribery and conspiracy and was sentenced to one year in prison, and a $100,000 fine, the first cabinet member to go to prison (AG John Mitchell, Watergate, second) • Harding's Death August 2, 1923 - Increasingly he worried about how his reputation was being damaged by the revelations of the scandals. His health suffered and he fell ill in Seattle, WA and later was diagnosed with pneumonia while visiting San Francisco.
  8. 8. THE REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTS • Coolidge Presidency - Era of Wonderful Nonsense 1. Coolidge, a Man
 - His idea of a good time was a long nap in the afternoon.
 - He was shy, favored the traditional values of hard work, industry, thrift and morality.
 2. Coolidge Administration -- Domestic Policy
 a. Dec 1923 - Addressing the US Congress, Coolidge supported Mellon's tax policies, adherence to the world court, prohibition, non-cancellation of the Allied war debt and no veterans' bonus, although Congress on March 18, 1924 passed over his veto, the World War Adjusted Compensation (Soldiers Bonus) Act
 b. Coolidge forced out of office all Harding appointees tainted with scandal c. Worshiped Laissez-Faire government and materialism: “If the Federal Government should go out of existence the common run of people would not detect the difference...” d. Wages more than doubled from 1913 to 1924 and energy and production levels were at all time highs.
  9. 9. • Welfare Capitalism - An American Plan of Business
 (1) If workers are taken care of, no unions or strikes would be needed.
 (a) Increased employee benefits included one-week paid vacations (two-weeks for seniority), basketball courts and baseball diamonds near factories where workers could play for an hour, a nurse or doctor available at the factory to treat injuries or illnesses, and company cafeterias offering good food at reasonable prices
 (b) Union membership declined in the 1920s -- AFL had 5 million members in 1920, but only 3.4 by 1929. • (2) Only one major flaw -- Unions could not compete with industrial prosperity, and wages were not raised significantly after the early 1920s. 
 (a) Workers had more time off but less money to spend
 (b) Prices increased faster than wages so that workers could not buy many of the products they manufactured themselves.
 (c) Attempts were made to sell US products overseas, but trade barriers on foreign imports entering the US, prevented capital from going overseas so US goods could not be bought. • (3) Creation of buying on credit or ‘buying on the margin’ develops out of lack of wage increase. Credit buying would of course put many Americans dangerously in debt.
  10. 10. THE REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTS • Kellogg-Briand Pact or Kellogg Pact - Aug 1928 
 (1) Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand agreed to outlaw war for one year, except for defensive purposes.
 (2) Signatories agreed to no armed aggression before a 1-year cooling off period
 (3) Eventually 62 nations signed.
 (4) Unfortunately the agreement contained no provisions for dealing with nations that violated the agreement and went to war, relying instead on the moral force of world opinion, rendering it useless and toothless.
 (5) Kellogg received the 1929 Nobel Peace Prize. • Election of 1928
 a. Coolidge Withdrawal
 (1) It was assumed that Coolidge would seek a second term since he had served less than two years of Harding's term and one term of his own, and the two term issue would not be seriously raised.
 (2) August 1927 - while on vacation in the Black Hills of South Dakota, Coolidge issued a statement - "I do not choose to run for President in 1928."
  11. 11. “My candle burns at both ends; it will not last the night; but ah, my foes, and oh, my friends it gives a lovely light!” - 1920 Edna St. Millay
  12. 12. JAZZ AGE • Post WWI: Great Migration and European Immigration. • Harlem Renaissance - The Cotton Club, Apollo Theater, Harlem Opera House • Performers: “Duke” Ellington; Bessie Smith; Cab Calloway; Louis Armstrong, Paul Robeson, Al Jolson and George Gershwin, Bill “Bojangles” Robinson, The Nicholas Brothers, Irving Berlin, • Writers: Langston Hughes; Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, Carl Sandberg, • Intellectuals: A. Phillip Randolph, W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, • Provides to the public a positive and influential form of black centered culture
  13. 13. • Dance - the Charleston and later the ‘Jitterbug’ with the growth of swing. • Dance marathons are popularized
  14. 14. FLAPPER • Advertising begins to use the allure of sexuality as a selling point. • Flappers - younger, often white middle class women. • Short “bobbed” hair • Flat hats - cloche hats • Dark/heavier makeup • Shorter skirts • Flappers were symbolic of a newly empowered youth culture in women
  15. 15. •Although the law until 1933, the “noble experiment” failed in many ways.
 •It did not cure the social evils of alcoholism
 Numerous violations of the law occurred at all levels of society. a.The US legal system was corrupted b.The cops, judges and detectives often looked the other way. c.1/12 of the FBI's Prohibition Bureau were dismissed for corruption. d.General public disrespected the law -- 300,000 violations of the Volstead Act alone
 •Organized crime emerged as a national force (largely financed by boot-legging liquor) Prohibition - 18th Amendment - Jan 1919
  16. 16. Organized Crime • Capone in the mid-1920s made over 60 million a year smuggling alcohol. - Avg. American = $1300 - Babe Ruth = $100,000 - Capone = $60,000,000 ($700,000,000) • He eliminated his competition by killing people off and creating a monopoly. - 522 killings were attached to Capone and his gang. • By the mid-1920s less than 20% of Americans supported Prohibition
  17. 17. Speakeasies and Bootleggers • During prohibition people who wanted to drink had to go to secret nightclubs and bars known as Speakeasies. • The clubs received the name because people would talk “easily” to avoid detection inside.
  18. 18. Speakeasies and Bootleggers • Generally, speakeasies were crowded with middle and upper class men and women. • Made it difficult to enforce as the police did not wish to lock up the wealthy lawmakers. • After a while, people became bolder with the law even going so far as to make alcohol at home. • Alcohol was allowed for medicinal purposes as well as religious service and so requests for these skyrocketed.
  19. 19. CONSUMERISM • Marketing Changes
 Companies overproduced consumer goods. Installment buying increased to encourage buying and to decrease the surplus of goods.
 (1) Installment buying previously was limited to large purchases (land or homes).
 (2) By the end of the 1920s, it will be the acceptable way to buy all kinds of goods. • Birth of the Modern Advertising Industry - Advertising sophistication created demands for products previously not heard of, like cigarettes, bathroom fixtures, central heating. • Custom Cars in the Automobile Industry
 (1) In 1920, Ford offered one standard, affordable model, Model T, in one color.
 (2) Chevrolet recognized the demand for personalized automobiles in multiple colors (Identity)
  20. 20. 1920s Ads
  21. 21. 1920s Ads
  22. 22. 1920s Ads
  23. 23. POP CULTURE • Miss America Pageant, 1921 • Louise Brooks made the “bob” an iconic 20s style and Mary Pickford was the most famous actress of the early film era. • Slang became popularized: "girls or women":  a broad, a bunny, a canary (well, one who could sing), a charity girl (one who was sexually promiscuous), a dame, a doll, cat's meow, cat's whiskers Mary Pickford Gabriel “Coco” Chanel Louise Brooks
  24. 24. Magician Harry Houdini made famous the tricks “Metamorphosis, ” Water Coffin(Chinese water torture) and many others
  25. 25. POP CULTURE • Herman “Babe” Ruth was the highest paid athlete in the world • Jack Dempsey - Heavyweight Champion and sports icon in 1920s • Red Grange - “The Galloping Ghost” was a football star for the Chicago Bears • Bobby Jones - Golfer; first star of the sport; described as having “a swing only God could match” Babe Ruth Jack Dempsey Red Grange Bobby Jones
  26. 26. POP CULTURE • First ‘talkie’ movie The Jazz Singer in 1927 debuted • Charles Lindbergh, was the first solo pilot to fly across the Atlantic (from NY to Paris) A 33.5 hour trip, he was an instant global celebrity • The Great Gatsby symbolized the shallowness of consumerism was also one of the most popular books of the 1920s Charlie Chaplin Charles Lindbergh “Lucky Lindy”
  27. 27. A “Gatsby” Girl
  28. 28. President Calvin Coolidge Working Out Good Housekeeping: Showing how wives could exercise while cleaning the house
  29. 29. • Scopes Monkey Trial - Dayton Tennessee July 1925
 (1) Tennessee's Butler Law made it illegal to teach evolution in public schools.
 (2) The ACLU sought a teacher, and found John Scopes willing to defy the law.
 (3) Clarence Darrow , an agnostic, was hired by the ACLU to defend Scopes.
 (4) Brought in to boost the prosecution was William Jennings Bryan , Fundamentalist Christian. Scopes' $100 fine was overturned on a technicality, the ACLU could not take this case to the Supreme Court John Scopes was also forced to leave Tennessee to continue teaching
  30. 30. •While the impact of the ruling proved minimal, the trial ultimately came to symbolize the growing conflict between rural traditionalism and urban modernism
  31. 31. • Af. Americans had two key leaders at the end of WWI, Booker T. Washington, who favored accommodation-ism and W.E.B.Du Bois (NAACP), who favored confrontational-ism. • A third option emerged in Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey, who in 1914 founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) • In 1920 the UNIA's national convention in Harlem attracted broad support from American Blacks with a message of Black Nationalism. • With Harlem booming, Garvey emphasized separatism, and established the Black Star Line (ships) to transport members in a “Back to Africa” campaign. He dreamed of a globally united Africa, known as the Pan-African Movement • He is one of the founders of Rastafarianism, along with Haile Selassie Rise of Black Nationalism
  32. 32. There is a direct connection from Marcus Garvey to later black nationalist leaders including Kwame Nkrumah, Nelson Mandela and Malcolm X
  33. 33. •Nov 1915 - History teacher(yikes!) Colonel William J. Simmons revived the KKK in a secret meeting near Stone Mountain GA •Still primarily a regional group, Hiram Evans (TX) promoted it into a nation-wide organization •It became politically potent from 1922-25 in several Southern and Midwestern states, reporting almost 6 million members at its peak. •By this time, the Klan saw itself more as a defender of traditionalism, rather than just an anti-Black group Revival of the Ku Klux Klan - a rural, fundamentalist, political movement
  34. 34. Sacco-Vanzetti Case 
 (1) Apr 1920 - A Massachusetts shoe factory was robbed by five men, during which a guard and officer were killed
 (2) After eyewitnesses reported that the robbers appeared to be Italians, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, both anarchists and Italians, were arrested.
 (3) Although both men had fairly good alibis, Sacco possessed a gun that ballistics showed was used in the robbery.
 (4) July 1921 - Both men, before the "unbiased" Judge Thayer who reportedly referred to them as "degos" and "sons of bitches," were found guilty largely on circumstantial evidence and sentenced to death by electrocution.
 (5) The case polarized the nation, causing many high-standing American leaders to deplore this "trial by atmosphere." Anti-Immigration Climbs
  35. 35. In the 1920s, many immigrants, especially from Eastern and Southern Europe, were feared as radicals.
 Immigration Legislation
 (1) 1890 - 1917 - almost 18 million immigrants arrived in the US
 (2) Emergency Quota Act May 1921 - first quota law permitted only 3% of a nationality to enter based on the number in the US according to the 1910 Census, limiting the total number of immigrants to 375,000 per year
 (3) Immigration Act of 1924 - Because this still favored too many Southeastern Europeans, it was modified to cut the quotas to 2% and based the ethnic breakdown on the 1890 Census (before sizable numbers of Southeastern Europeans arrived). Rising Fear of Immigrants and Radicalism