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APUSH Lecture Ch. 29 pt 2

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APUSH Lecture Ch. 29 pt 2

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APUSH Lecture Ch. 29 pt 2

  1. 1. A Decade of Dissent
  2. 2. The Civil Rights Movement
  3. 3. Pre-1900 •Opposition to slavery in colonial days •Abolition movement and Civil War •Legalized racism after Reconstruction •1896 Plessy v. Ferguson allowed the segregation of African Americans and whites. 1930s •Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois •Founding of the NAACP in 1909 •African Americans suffered worse than others during the Great Depression. •Roosevelt unwilling to push for improved African American rights. 1940s •A. Philip Randolph forced a federal ban against discrimination in defense work. •1940s founding of CORE •President Truman desegregated the armed forces. •Brooklyn Dodgers put an African American—Jackie Robinson—on its roster.
  4. 4. Jackie Robinson 1947 Robinson’s breaking of the color barrier was extremely controversial Other more talented ball players were passed on due to their temperament Robinson’s contract contained clauses with a zero tolerance for retaliation
  5. 5. With help from the NAACP, the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka reached the Supreme Court, challenging the constitutionality of Plessy v. Ferguson. In the case, Oliver Brown challenged that his daughter, Linda, should be allowed to attend an all-white school near her home instead of the distant all-black school she had been assigned to. Oliver Brown was a welder for the Santa Fe Railroad and a part- time assistant pastor at St. John African Methodist Episcopal Church. Linda Brown was in the third grade when her father began his class action lawsuit.
  6. 6. Thurgood Marshall, argued that “separate” could never be “equal” and that segregated schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee to provide “equal protection” to all citizens.
  7. 7. * In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Brown family, and schools nationwide were ordered to be desegregated “ with all due haste” Ruling eliminates de jure segregation However de facto segregation still existed
  8. 8. Civil Rights 1954-1957 •1954 Brown v. Board •1956 Southern Manifesto was a petition signed by 101 Southern congress members in the South to overturn Brown ruling.
  9. 9. •Emmett Till - August 28th, 1955 Mississippi - young boy that was beaten and then shot to death for whistling to a white woman (Carolyn Bryant) ‘bye baby’ •Roy Bryant and J.W. Miliam were acquitted
  10. 10. Integrated schools: · In Little Rock, Arkansas, Gov. Orval Faubus opposed integration. · In 1957, he called out the National Guard in order to prevent African Americans from attending an all-white high school. · Gov. Faubus openly in favor of violating federal law.
  11. 11. •The Little Rock Nine •On September 4, 1957, angry whites harassed nine black students as they arrived at Little Rock’s Central High School. •The Arkansas National Guard turned the Little Rock Nine away and prevented them from entering the school for three weeks. •Finally, Eisenhower sent the 101st Airborne Div. to escort the Little Rock Nine into the school.
  12. 12. Bottom Row, Left to Right: Thelma Mothershed, Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Gloria Ray; Top Row, Left to Right: Jefferson Thomas, Melba Pattillo, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Daisy Bates(NAACP President), Ernest Green
  13. 13. Members of the 101st US-Airborne Division escorting the Little Rock Nine to school
  14. 14. Montgomery, Alabama The Montgomery Bus Boycott The Southern Christian Leadership Conference •In 1955 a local NAACP member named Rosa Parks refused to give her seat to white riders. •The resulting Montgomery bus boycott led to a Supreme Court ruling that segregation on buses was unconstitutional. •African Americans formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, or SCLC, to protest activities taking place all across the South. •Martin Luther King Jr. was the elected leader of this group—which was committed to mass, nonviolent action.
  15. 15. Montgomery Campaign •1955 - Rosa Parks •SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference 1957 •SNCC - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee 1960
  16. 16. Woolworth’s sit-in 1960 - four African American students in Greensboro, NC sat down at a segregated lunch counter and refused to move until they were served
  17. 17. Freedom Rides, 1961 • Started May 4, 1961 in D.C. • Over the Spring and Summer, student volunteers begin taking bus trips through the South. • Known as the Freedom Riders, they are met with violence in Alabama • Robert Kennedy calls in federal troops to protect the Freedom Riders
  18. 18. 
 Integration of Higher Education in the South • In Oct 1, 1962 James Meredith tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi. –He arrived on campus with 500 federal marshals and was met by 2,500 violent protesters. –President Kennedy went on national television to announce that he was sending in troops. –The troops ended the protest but hundreds had been injured and two killed. –A small force of US Marshals remained to protect Meredith until he graduated in 1963.
  19. 19. The Birmingham Campaign The Campaign •Martin Luther King raised money to fight Birmingham’s segregation laws. •Volunteers began with sit-ins and marches and were quickly arrested. •King hoped this would motivate more people to join the protests. •White clergy attacked King’s actions in a newspaper ad. •King wrote his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.” •Fewer African Americans were willing to join and risk their jobs. The Results •A SCLC leader convinced King to use children for his protests. •More than 900 children between ages six and eighteen were arrested. •Police Chief Eugene “Bull” Connor used police and fire fighters to break up a group of about 2,500 student protesters. •The violence of Connor’s methods was all over the television news. •Federal negotiators got the city officials to agree to many of King’s demands.
  20. 20. Birmingham campaign 1963-64 • Project C - meaning “confrontation” was a method used by MLK that sought to overwhelm the judicial system with massive arrests. • Letter from a Birmingham Jail - MLK - April 16, 1963 open ended letter described the rationale for his non-violent protesting of discrimination • “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere” • “one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws”
  21. 21. Medgar Evers •Medgar Evers - killed June 12, 1963 by Byron De La Beckwith •Evers was a NAACP field secretary who was behind the legal push to have James Meredith integrated. De La Beckwith was not convicted until 1994
  22. 22. March on Washington 1963 • Aug. 28 1963 - March on Washington - over 200,000 people joined to pressure the government into action • MLK makes famous “I Have a Dream” speech. • Sept 15 - riots erupt in Birmingham when four girls are killed with a bomb at their church JFK assassinated late in 1963
  23. 23. Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1963 Birmingham, AL - MLK Jr utilized the bravery of children in the Birmingham Campaign to bring sympathy and public opinion on the side of his movement. After viewing ‘Bull’ Connor’s harsh treatment of even children, Birmingham was pressured into passing a series of civil rights reforms. In retaliation, the KKK targeted the 16th st. church Sept. 15, 10:22 AM a bomb planted by several Klan members detonated killing four children (Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Carole Robertson and Cynthia Wesley) Connie Lynch “....weren’t children. Children are little people, little human beings, and that means white people. They’re just little niggers....and if there’s four less niggers tonight then I say “Good for whoever planted the bomb!”
  24. 24. Civil Rights Act of 1964 24th Amendment ratified Jan. 23rd of 1964 outlawed the poll tax for federal elections LBJ signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on July 2 Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin. Also makes legal the federal government’s right to desegregate*
  25. 25. Freedom Summer, 1964 Push by coalition of four civil rights groups to register blacks to vote in the South (Mississippi) SNCC, SCLC, CORE, NAACP Several thousand northern whites volunteered for the work Issues with Literacy Tests - 17,000 registered blacks 1,600 passed test
  26. 26. Freedom Summer, 1964 June 21, 1964 murder of three CORE members James Chaney, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman Killed by mob of Klansmen (Cecil Price, sheriff) Edgar Ray Killen convicted of the murders on June 21, 2005
  27. 27. Freedom Summer, 1964 In addition to voting, schools, hospitals and businesses were set up by volunteers from the North in an attempt to improve the standing of blacks in the South Casualties resulting: 4 killed 4 critically wounded 80 workers beaten 1000+ arrested 37 churches bombed
  28. 28. Selma and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 “Bloody Sunday” - March 7th 1965, blacks marching in support of voting rights are stopped by a police blockade. Methods by police used were tear gas, whips, and clubs. 50 marchers hospitalized Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned all literacy tests and poll taxes which made it easier for blacks to register to vote.
  29. 29. The Movement Moves North The riots convinced King that the civil rights movement needed to move north. He focused on Chicago in 1966. The eight month Chicago campaign was one of King’s biggest failures. Chicago’s African Americans did not share his civil rights focus—their concerns were economic. King discovered that some northern whites who had supported him and criticized racism in the South had no interest in seeing it exposed in the North.
  30. 30. MLK Jr. April 3rd, 1968 “I don’t know what will happen now. We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn’t matter with me now. Because I’ve been to the mountaintop....I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land”
  31. 31. King’s Assassination 1968 MLK is killed in Memphis, Tenn. on April 4th Rioting occurs in every major US city (over 120 total) Rioting occurs over the deaths of RFK, MLK, Vietnam and the 1968 DNC. Belief in change over a decade has dwindled and many have lost faith in the Gov’t (Credibility Gap)
  32. 32. Death of Bobby Kennedy June 5th, 1968 - shot and killed at the Ambassador Hotel in LA. Bobby Kennedy was considered the favorite to win the White House Kennedy had a long history of supporting civil rights. His loss was seen as a crushing blow to civil rights political agenda.
  33. 33. Peaceful turns to Violence 1965 - 1966 After not noticing any changes, blacks began to move towards more violent methods of protest Riots in Watts, CA Black Panthers are formed and “Black Power” becomes a popular motto
  34. 34. Black Power Movement •SNCC changes course -> Stokley Carmichael - declares blacks need to be more militant in their approaches. •Institutional Racism - disparity in laws: drug laws or 1935 Social Security Act
  35. 35. Stokley Carmichael (Kwame Ture) "Racism is both overt and covert. It takes two, closely related forms; individual Whites acting against individual Blacks and acts by the total of White community against the Black community. We call this individual racism and institutional racism."
  36. 36. Malcolm X (Malik El Shabazz or Malcolm Little) Was a leading figure in the black power movement. He often endorsed the use of force to promote change. “By any means necessary” He originally joined the Nation of Islam but he left the group after a philosophical disagreement with leader Eliah Muhammad Feb. 21, 1965 - killed by three gunmen sent by Muhammad
  37. 37. Fractures in the civil rights movement •Conflict among the diverse groups of the civil rights movement developed in the 1960s. •Many SNCC and CORE members were beginning to question nonviolence. •In 1966 SNCC abandoned the philosophy of nonviolence. •Huey Newton and Bobby Seale formed the Black Panther Party (1966) and called for violent revolution as a means of African American liberation. •Malcolm X and the Black Muslims were critical of King and nonviolence.
  38. 38. Black Power •Stokely Carmichael became the head of SNCC. •SNCC abandoned the philosophy of nonviolence. •Black Power became the new rallying cry. •Wanted African Americans to depend on themselves to solve problems. Black Panthers •The Black Panther Party was formed in Oakland, California, in 1966. •Called for violent revolution as a means of African American liberation. •Members carried guns and monitored African American neighborhoods to guard against police brutality. Fractures in the Movement Black Muslims •Nation of Islam was a large and influential group who believed in Black Power. •Message of black nationalism, self- discipline, and self- reliance. •Malcolm X offered message of hope, defiance, and black pride.
  39. 39. Black Power Movement The movement rejected desegregation because it was regarded as losing their African heritage to fit in to a white dominated society. 1968 Mexico City Olympics - John Carlos and Tommie Smith both made a public display of their political feelings. Expelled from the olympics for life and rejected at home.
  40. 40. The Black Panthers •Hoover was particularly concerned about the Black Panthers. •Police raided Black Panther headquarters in many cities. •Armed conflict resulted, even when Black Panther members were unarmed. •By the early 1970s, armed violence had led to the killing or arrest of many Black Panther members. The Decline of Black Power SNCC •SNCC collapsed with the help of the FBI. •H. Rap Brown, the leader who replaced Stokley Carmichael as the head of SNCC, was encouraged to take radical and shocking positions. •Brown was encouraged to take these positions by his staff—many of whom worked for the FBI. •Membership declined rapidly.
  41. 41. Civil Rights Changes in the 1970s •Civil Rights Act of 1968—banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing (also called the Fair Housing Act) •Busing and political change—to speed the integration of city schools, courts began ordering that some students be bused from their neighborhood schools to schools in other areas –Busing met fierce opposition in the North. –Busing was a major cause of the migration of whites from cities to suburbs. –This development increased the political power of African Americans in the cities. •Affirmative action (Bakke vs. UC Regents 1978) —programs that gave preference to minorities and women in hiring and admissions to make up for past discrimination against these groups
  42. 42. 1.Women’s Movement 2.Mexican-American (La Raza) Movement 3.Native-American Movement 4.Gay Liberation 5.Free Speech Movement 6.Counterculture
  43. 43. The growth of the black power movement spearheaded the development of other movements in the mid 60s to early 70s. - LBJ became a symbol of division - low popularity led to him not seeking a second term. - Republicans won by promising an end to war Kerner Report - 1968 report that identified ‘two societies in America - one black and one white’
  44. 44. Feminist Movement First Wave: Focused on Suffrage Amendment. Equal Rights Amendment desired but not ultimately gained. Second Wave: 1960s-80s Great emphasis on equality with men. Tended to be geared mostly to white, middle-upper class women. Issues of equal pay, abortion/health care, sexual abuse, work place behaviors and promotions, all important.
  45. 45. Feminist Movement 1963 Betty Friedan wrote the Feminine Mystique. •Later would form NOW (National Org. of Women) •Groups focus was on guaranteed equality for women. Gloria Steinem formed Ms. Magazine •Anti-Vietnam activist •Undercover story on Playboy and exploitation of women. (Anti- pornography and violence against women) •Title 7 of Civil Rights Act of 1964 •Title 9 of Educational Act of 1972
  46. 46. Feminist Movement Miss America Pageant of 1968 •Large gathering of feminists that protested the pageant’s exploitation of contestants by throwing bras and high-heeled shoes •“instruments of torture” Roe v. Wade, 1973 •Women have a right to privacy under the 14th Amendment to have an abortion. •Ruling legalized abortion by ruling state laws could not restrict it during first trimester •2nd trimester and 3rd trimester state regulation was allowed with some exceptions.
  47. 47. Results of Feminist Movement Raised consciousness about: •women’s studies/development of women’s studies class. •workplace discrimination •violence against women finally defined as ‘rape’ •birth control pill developed in 1960s Still no ERA and still no National Rape Laws! Still wage inequality $.77 to $1.00
  48. 48. Cesar Chavez and The Chicano Movement •Chavez worked as a migrant farm worker for much of his childhood in CA •Formed the National Farm Workers Association in 1965 •Advocated picketing markets, boycotting grape picking (very time sensitive) •25 day hunger strike for cause
  49. 49. Cesar Chavez and The Chicano Movement United Farm Workers •NFWA became UFW in 1966 •Demanded strike from 1.20 to 1.40 per hour •Better work conditions •Right to unionize •Nixon supported the workers and won raises as a result. •However, the shift towards using illegal immigrant labor stunted the financial progress made by UFW
  50. 50. La Raza Unida and Brown Berets La Raza Unida: •Coalition of Native American, Mexican, Latin-American and other recent immigrants. •1,500 college students led. Brown Berets •Chicano version of Black Panthers •Anti-Vietnam •Student walkouts in Los Angeles •Demanded better school conditions •Police brutality/targeting latinos
  51. 51. Native American Movement Alcatraz •Nov. 1969 78 Indians seized control of the island •Offered gov’t beads to buy it •wanted to use it for a cultural center and school •Ended in 1971 with gov. raid. Wounded Knee, 1973 • South Dakota site of Sioux Massacre • American Indian Movement (AIM) took over buildings • Standoff lasted for 2 months Indian Self-Determination Act of 1974 • Allowed the current framework of N.A. tribal control over reservation land. Helps some more than others.
  52. 52. Gay and Lesbian Liberation Movement Stonewall Riots, NYC 1969 •Catalyzing moment for the movement •Police regularly raided gay bars and published the names of those arrested. •When they raided the Stonewall bar, patrons fought back •Riots for more than a week •Gay Pride became a rally call - led to parades, public displays, etc. Harry Hay • Devoted Marxist • Founded the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) after Stonewall • Forced to testify in 1950s Harvey Milk • First openly gay elected official (San Francisco Board of Supervisors) • “I’m Harvey Milk and I’m here to recruit you” • Assassinated by Dan White (Mayor Moscone also killed) • “Twinkie Defense”
  53. 53. Student Protests Free Speech Movement •Started with young men refusing to register for the draft and instead burning draft cards •March ’65 faculty and students at U of Mich. held first teach-in to discuss the war •Universities became the focal point of growing political liberalism UC Berkeley and the FSM •Fall of 1964 conflict between students and admin •32 hour stand-off •Mario Savio atop police car led 2500 students in a sit-in •Bodies on the Gears •FSM included both Young Republicans and New Leftists FSM became a model of protest •New Left Emerged •Students for a Democratic Society •Formed at U of Mich with the 1962 Port Huron Statement •Rejected communism but supported activism •Weatherman was a violent branch of SDS
  54. 54. Antiwar Demonstrators Burn Draft Cards on the Steps of the Pentagon, May 22, 1972
  55. 55. Impact of 1968 •Tet Offensive •My Lai Massacre •MLK assassinated •RFK assassinated •Miss America protests •Czech invaded by USSR •LBJ steps down amid war protests within his party Election ’68 •Humphrey (D) vs. Nixon (R) •Riots at Democratic National Convention “The Whole World is Watching”
  56. 56. Anti war protesters, 1967
  57. 57. The Counterculture “Hippies” or “Yippies” •Protests against Vietnam as well as distrust in LBJ and gov’t (especially after shootings) led to a retraction from mainstream American culture •Many questioned American values Hippies felt society was: •repressive, unjust and racist •felt the educational system focused on discipline and social control
  58. 58. L.S.D. •2 Harvard Professors (Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert) began experiments with students •Created a new religion: League of Spiritual Discovery with LSD as the sacrament. Free Love: Summer of Love ’67 Thousands of hippies gathered in Haight-Ashbury in SF Lived in communal houses Heavy use of drugs; focus on open sexuality and music
  59. 59. Woodstock 1969 •Nearly half a million gathered for a 3 day outdoor concert focused on free love and music •Farm in upstate NY •Rained, no food, no water, no reliable sanitation
  60. 60. Military police guard an entrance to the Pentagon during 1967 anti-war protest
  61. 61. Anti-war demonstration at Pentagon Oct 1967
  62. 62. Johnson Leaves Office • 68- Johnson decides not to increase troops in Vietnam • Too little, too late “Hey Hey LBJ, How many kids did you kill today!” • Approval ratings: 26% • Chooses not to run for reelection

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