Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

APUSH Lecture Ch. 30-31 Nixon to Reagan

14,317 views

Published on

APUSH Lecture Ch. 30-31 Nixon to Reagan

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to like this

APUSH Lecture Ch. 30-31 Nixon to Reagan

  1. 1. DEEP DIVISIONS AT HOME: Election of 1968 •LBJ •Robert Kennedy •Hubert Humphrey •Democratic Convention - Chicago •Richard M. Nixon – “silent majority” Robert Kennedy Hubert H. Humphrey Richard Nixon President Johnson
  2. 2. Presidential Election 
 of 1968
  3. 3. “Peace with Honor”- Nixon The Problem of Vietnam •Nixon did not want to be the 1st president to lose a war •“Vietnamization” pulling US troops, shift responsibility to S. Vietnamese
  4. 4. Evacuation from Saigon, April 29, 1975
  5. 5. Richard Nixon
  6. 6. Nixon’s Presidency •He appeals to the “silent majority” who were opposed to the counterculture movement and the civil unrest. People looking for a more conservative leader. •Vietnam war was at a boiling point when Nixon took office. •He made a campaign pledge to find a way out ofVietnam....In reality he had no plan.
  7. 7. “Nixon Doctrine” •Morality of the War - this was questioned for many reasons. •1. Seen as a civil war - none of U.S. business •2.What is the purpose/who is the enemy? Proxy wars often have no clear purpose •3.The unconventional use of guerilla warfare, civilian population and booby traps led to troop unrest -> My Lai massacre
  8. 8. China and “Ping-pong” Diplomacy •China begins to split away from USSR in 1969. Nixon takes full advantage •1971 US ping pong team visits •1972 Nixon visits China and opens up US borders to Chinese trade and investment •A modern “Open Door Policy”
  9. 9. SALT I •S.A.L.T. I - Strategic Arms Limitation Talks - pushed by the newly formed US-China relations, USSR comes to the table to begin peaceful discussions. •A peaceful pause would result from these talks between the US and USSR
  10. 10. Watergate Scandal •Watergate Hotel - Washington DC June, 1972 - Nixon’s aides break into the hotel which was serving as the headquarters of the Democrats. •Additional past indiscretions now came to light including: numerous wiretaps, payoffs, and even administrative threats.
  11. 11. Watergate Scandal •Nixon was now faced with a huge political scandal which was not helped by the secret war he started in Cambodia. •Nixon decided to resign as president before he could be impeached by Congress.
  12. 12. Middle East Problems •Yom Kippur War - Also known as the 1973 Arab- Israeli War - October 6 to October 26 1973 between Israel and Egypt/Syria forces. •Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack on Israel and achieve early victories but are later defeated and forced back to original borders.
  13. 13. Middle East Problems •Two major effects were: the Arab world felt vindicated militarily by the war. •The war and the US support of Israel would led to the emergence of OPEC and the 1973 oil crisis
  14. 14. Oil Crisis •Began in 1973 as a result of US support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War. •Gas prices were extremely high for the time approaching $1.00 a gallon •Formation of OPEC leads to a market dominance of the petroleum by Arab nations.
  15. 15. Oil Crisis •Lasting Effects of Oil Crisis •Major effect on inflation prices in U.S. •Beginning of Japanese automobile invasion •Achilles heal of U.S. is exposed by OPEC, which will lead to future conflicts. •Increase in value of Russia’s oil which keeps them afloat for longer
  16. 16. Sports heroes •Battle of the Sexes 1973 - Bobby Riggs is defeated in straight sets by Billy Jean King after he claimed he could beat any woman •Mark Spitz 1972 - broke 7 world records to win 7 gold medals at the olympics. His spotlight was tainted by the Munich hostage crisis
  17. 17. Secretariat •By 1973 the US was at its lowest point since the Great Depression. •Many held no faith in the Government •Secretariat was a symbol of hope and greatness that people clung to...unable to be corrupted
  18. 18. Kentucky Derby and Preakness
  19. 19. Belmont Stakes
  20. 20. Support of Dictators •Pinochet - In 1973, Pinochet came to power in Chile and began to wipe out the communist party there. •Nixon’s support of Pinochet was due to his anti-communist sentiment and his embracing of a US dominated free-market world.
  21. 21. Civil Rights •School Desegregation - Nixon oversaw more students integrated into the public school system, than any other president. •Philadelphia Plan and Affirmative Action - the first legislation that addressed affirmative action was under Nixon. Helping minorities gain work and access to higher education.
  22. 22. Mr. “Green” •EPA - The Environmental Protection Agency while often ineffective was the first environmental watchdog set up by the US government. •Legacy of Parks - a federal program where the national government will match a city’s funds 50-50 for the purpose of building city parks.
  23. 23. More Domestic Issues •DEA - Drug Enforcement Agency - Nixon’s famous “war on drugs” - Created to combat the flow of narcotics entering the US. •Nixon stops the practice of the US treasury balancing the dollar to a gold standard - long reaching effects across the world.
  24. 24. Gerald Ford •Only President in history to never be elected into office. •Appointed Vice President after Spiro Agnew resigns - 1973 •Becomes president after Nixon resigns - 1974 •Is not reelected in 1976
  25. 25. Nixon’s Pardon •September 8, 1974 Ford gave Nixon a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he committed as president. •This was seen as highly controversial and unpopular. To many people, this would result in Ford not being reelected.
  26. 26. Gerald Ford 1974-1976 •1975 Helsinki accords - Warsaw Pact and NATO agree to keep current European boundaries and provide equal human rights •Nixon and Ford caused anti- Republican sentiment for their stance on the Cold War
  27. 27. Jimmy Carter 1977-1981 •Son of a peanut farmer, was Gov. of Georgia who was well known for being a supporter of racial desegregation. •As Gov. of Georgia, filed a report with UFO Bureau on his 1969 sighting.
  28. 28. Jimmy Carter 1977-1981 •Carter appealed to voters as a strong Christian leader who would restore the presidency. •For a Democrat, his policies were very “Republican” as he reduced the size of the Federal Government by 1/3.
  29. 29. Jimmy Carter 1977-1981 •Carter did not support dictatorships across the globe - cut funding to S. Africa, Chile, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. •Camp David Agreement 1979 - agreement between Israel and Egypt for peaceful relations and Israel’s withdrawal from the Sinai
  30. 30. No more peace •SALT II talks resume but are quickly tabled as the USSR invades Afghanistan in 1979. •The war would be Russia’s Vietnam lasting from 1979 to 1989 with heavy casualties and a strategic loss. •Carter funds a multi-billion dollar program to train and arm Islamic fundamentalists to fight the USSR. •Concern over USSR taking over Middle East
  31. 31. Panama Canal Debate •In 1977 Jimmy Carter signs over control of the Panama Canal to Panama, a move that angered many Americans.
  32. 32. Iran Hostage Crisis •1953 the US backed the a ruthless Iranian monarch the Shah. The Shah held good relations with the US. •1979 Iranian Revolution toppled the Shah and the Ayatollah Khomeini was now in charge and he increased anti- American sentiment.
  33. 33. Iran Hostage Crisis •The Shah goes to NewYork to seek cancer treatment...mobs in Tehran go nuts and storm the US embassy in the city and take 60 hostages. •The standoff that ensued between the terrorists and Carter would not end until Reagan entered office, 444 days later. •Change and instability of Iran causes oil shortage and the 1979 energy crisis.
  34. 34. Energy Crisis of 1979 •As oil prices rise again, the economy slows down but Carter cut gov’t spending. •Economy tanking was a result of off-shoring jobs and increased mechanization
  35. 35. Ronald Reagan 1981-1989 •Started out as an actor. In the film “Knute Rockne” he played The Gipper. •“Win won for the Gipper” •Never a major actor. •Reagan was married twice...only president to have been divorced. His second wife, Nancy, had a very close relationship to Ronald •Reminded many of a grandfather figure
  36. 36. Ronald Reagan 1981-1989 •Reagan had always been a hard line anti- Communist and supported methods used by Eisenhower and Nixon over Carter. •Jimmy Carter lost his presidency over inflation, unemployment, Iran hostage crisis. •Famous for his movie references “Make my day” and “Star Wars”
  37. 37. Reagan Doodles
  38. 38. Reagan Revolution • Economic Recovery and Tax Act of 1981 - reduced personal income taxes by 25% over three years. • The program cut government budget by $747 billion dollars but gave more money to consumers. Many programs cut. Under Reagan national debt increased from $150 billion to $3 trillion dollars. At the same time unemployment and inflation went down. • Deregulation - opened up business by removing many regulations; horrible for the environment.
  39. 39. Reagan Revolution • Some of the hardest hit were the poorest people. • Poverty rates went up from 11 to 15% during the 1980s. • Reagan’s tax cuts meant less government money for the mentally ill. Most of these patients ended up on the streets. During the 1980s the homeless population increased from 200,000 to 700,000 • The war on drugs under Reagan saw high numbers of minorities jailed (Crack v. Powder cocaine)
  40. 40. 1984 Election Can you say landslide?
  41. 41. “Reaganomics” •Supply Side economics - the belief that economic relief to the suppliers of goods and services will result in lower prices and more economic investment by them in the long run. •Yuppies - young urban professionals emerged as a new market. Greed and commercial gains became popular. Brand name popularity as social status.
  42. 42. “Reaganomics” • 1. reduce the growth of government spending • 2. reduce marginal tax rates on income from labor and capital • 3. reduce government regulation of the economy • 4. control the money supply to reduce inflation
  43. 43. Loss of the Middle Class •1. Tax Cuts for the wealthiest 20% did not translate into economic assistance to the poor. •2. Middle Wage industrial jobs continued to be shipped overseas to other countries such as China and Mexico or mechanized. •3. Immigration numbers peak increasing the number of lower wage workers. MiddleClass
  44. 44. End of the Cold War
  45. 45. Lebanon •October 1983 - Civil war in Lebanon resulted in an American peacekeeping force to be sent. American soldiers were attacked by suicide bombers killing 241 soldiers. Grenada •Three days after the attack in Lebanon, the US invaded Grenada where a communist government existed. •US fought Grenadan and Cuban forces that resulted in a US victory by mid-December.
  46. 46. Iran Contra Affair • In the 1980s the Reagan administration sold arms to Iran in exchange for the release of American held captives. • Reagan then illegally sent the money from the weapons to the Contras in Nicaragua. • In separate instances the Reagan administration sold arms to Saddam Hussien to fight Iran as well as Afghanistan to fight Russia. (these are weapons now being used against us) Contras vs. Sandistas US supported Dictatorship vs. Sandistas
  47. 47. Star Wars •SDI - Strategic Defense Initiative - was a defensive weapons system •SDI initiative established by Reagan to build up the nuclear program. •The new arms race increase military expenditures especially in the southwest or Sunbelt states. •USSR could no longer keep up with the US in military spending
  48. 48. Fall of USSR •Gorbachev establishes Glasnost which is political openness in Russia. •He later establishes Perestroika which sought to restructure the political and economic systems in Russia to more flexible and modern methods. •Reagan pleads for the wall to come down
  49. 49. Fall of USSR •Gorbachev hoped that more democratic methods would allow Russia to reduce military spending and focus more on the economy •Gorbachev’s introduction of more democratic ideals into USSR led to the breaking up of the Empire •December 1991 - 14 non-Russian republics declared their independence from Russia
  50. 50. Year 1946 1950 1956 1960 1970 1980 1988 Total # of US & USSR Nukes 9 400 2,207 3,471 7,176 18,088 23, 444
  51. 51. Explain how glasnost, democratization and perestroika are examples of “the death of communism” in the Soviet Union”
  52. 52. Fall of the Berlin Wall, November, 1989 As East German border guards watch passively, a West Berliner pounds away at the hated symbol of a divided city. ((c) Bettmann/ Corbis) Fall of the Berlin Wall, November, 1989 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  53. 53. Rainbow Coalition poster During the 1984 and 1988 campaigns, Reverend Jesse Jackson won a large following as the first African American to make a serious bid for the presidential nomination of a major party. His multiethnic political organization, the Rainbow Coalition, included people of all colors. Rainbow Coalition poster Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  54. 54. Persian Gulf oil fields In the Persian Gulf War of early 1991, Operation Desert Storm forced Iraqi troops out of Kuwait. Much of that nation's oil industry was destroyed by bombs and the retreating Iraqis, who torched oil facilities as they left. Oil wells burned for months, darkening the sky over these American forces and causing environmental damage.
  55. 55. Exxon Valdez disaster and oil spill Fisherman John Thomas rescues an oil-soaked cormorant after the massive oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound in March of 1989. ((c) Bettmann/Corbis)

×