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Ganges BDC Draft Messages: Unlocking the Production Potential of the Polders
 

Ganges BDC Draft Messages: Unlocking the Production Potential of the Polders

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by: Dr. T.P.Tuong Presented at the GBDC Reflection Workshop,November 2013

by: Dr. T.P.Tuong Presented at the GBDC Reflection Workshop,November 2013

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  • But our primary focus is the south west and south central coastal zone
  • Why did CPWF pick the coastal zone of the Ganges?It’s an area in desperate need:Many millions of really poor, vulnerable people dependent on agriculture & aquacultureLow productivity – it missed out on the Green Revolution unlike the rest of BangladeshBuild on past CPWF achievements and networksThese projects showed that there is ….We believe that there the coastal zone offers the potential for Bdg to …
  • Why did CPWF pick the coastal zone of the Ganges?It’s an area in desperate need:Many millions of really poor, vulnerable people dependent on agriculture & aquacultureLow productivity – it missed out on the Green Revolution unlike the rest of BangladeshBuild on past CPWF achievements and networksThese projects showed that there is ….We believe that there the coastal zone offers the potential for Bdg to …
  • The CPWF Ganges program comprises 5 projects, 4 led by CG centres and 1 by the Bangladesh Institute of Water Modelling (IWM), who do really excellent work. Their task is to provide data, models & model simulations on the water resources in the coastal zoneG2 development & evaluation of improved cropping systemsG3 IWMI leads IRRI leads G1 brings together the findings of all the other projects & other information into a comprehensive GIS database used to identify which improved cropping systems are best suited to which regionsG5, lead by WF, is responsible for overall co-ordination, liaison with CPWF, development of policy dialogues, communication….The scope of each project was designed by a small committee to create a co-ordinated approach to the problem.The projects are inter-dependent, some more than others, and some of them share common members.All the project teams meet together twice a year to share progress, plans and ideasWe also go on field trips togetherRight from the start, we were able to develop some very nice collaboration, synergies and complementarities across the projects, and tremendous sharing and good willMany of us think that this has been the best R4D program that we have ever been involved in, and a model for others to emulate
  • A lot of our work is focussed in 3 polders in areas with low, medium and high salinity conditions
  • Example of river tidal levels versus land level – in this case polder 30At high tide the water level in the rivers is way above the level of all the land in the polderAt low tide, the river level is lower than the level of almost all the land in this polder.

Ganges BDC Draft Messages: Unlocking the Production Potential of the Polders Ganges BDC Draft Messages: Unlocking the Production Potential of the Polders Presentation Transcript

  • Messages from the Ganges Basin Development Challenge (GBDC) Unlocking the Production Potential of the Polders of the Coastal Zone of Bangladesh through Water Management Investment and Reform GBDC Community
  • Target area for extrapolation CPWF primary focus – polders Outputsof SW & SC coastal zone of Bangladesh domains
  • Why the coastal zone of the Ganges Delta? NEED • Among world’s poorest, most food insecure, vulnerable rural families • Dense population >36 million people; >760/km2 (>7.6 per 100 m x 100 m) (2001) • Low land & water productivity – 1 low yielding traditional aman crop, much of the land is fallow during much of the dry season - missed out on the Green Revolution 3
  • Why the coastal zone of the Ganges Delta? OPPORTUNITIES • Opportunity to build on the achievements & networks of CPWF Phase 1 project • The coastal zone offers the potential for Bangladesh to make a quantum leap in meeting future food security requirements 4
  • The Ganges Basin Development Challenge – 5 Projects River Increasing resilience of agric & aqua systems of the coastal zone of the Ganges Basin Inlet to sluice gate G4. Understanding of water resources – data & models (current & future scenarios) Polder G2. More 31 productive, resilient & diversified cropping systems (rice, upland, aquaculture) Sluice gate on river side G3. Understanding polder water governance – recommendations for improvement Sluice gate inside the polder G1. Cropping system suitability maps from Polder 30 comprehensive GIS data base G5. Co-ordination, liaison with CPWF, policy dialogues, communication with stakeholders for up & outscaling
  • Target polders infor extrapolation 3 focal area Bangladesh Outputs domains Low salinity - Polder 43/2F (IPSWAM) 1 rice, 1 legume per year High salinity - Polder 3 Rice/shrimp & Aquaculture Moderate salinity Polder 30 (IPSWAM) 1 rice, 1 legume per year
  • About the messages • Based on findings of all the Gs + discussions, consultations. • Products of the Gs • Aims – Correct mis-perceptions about potentials of the coastal zone – Change mind-sets – Advocate for the changes in resource use, resource management policies, institutional coordination and governance mechanism
  • Content • Message 1: Water resources: rich but under-utilized • Message 2: Huge production potentials • Message 3: New paradigm for water management infrastructure investment • Message 4: Three tier strategy for infrastructure maintenance • Message 5:Transparent and accountable IWRM governance • Message 6: Access to data and modern tools in planning, policy analysis, technology targeting
  • Message 1. Water resources in the coastal zone are rich, but under utilized. • Perception: Water resources in the coastal zone is a constraint to agricultural production. Therefore, underused • Reality: They are rich and have huge potential to support agricultural and aquacultural production and livelihood improvement of farming families and communities.
  • Low salinity Zone (Barisal) : there is fresh water for irrigation year round – now and near future POLDER-43/2f Polder 43-2f (Station-2 (Out Side),Paira River) 24.0 16.0 12.0 8.0 4.0 2-Mar 22-Nov 14-Aug 6-May 26-Jan 18-Oct 10-Jul 1-Apr 23-Dec 14-Sep 6-Jun 0.0 26-Feb Salinity (ppt) 20.0
  • Medium salinity zone: enough fresh water for dry season irrigation for part of the area POLDER-30 Polder 30 (Station-2, Pussur river) 16.00 Storage water can irrigate 25% of area during February - April 8.00 4.00 Aug-13 -Jun-13 Apr-13 Feb-13 Dec-12 Oct-12 Aug-12 -Jun-12 Apr-12 Feb-12 Dec-11 Oct-11 Aug-11 -Jun-11 0.00 Apr-11 Salinity (ppt) 12.00
  • High salinity zone: brackish water supports highincome aquaculture. It is a resource, not a constraint POLDER-3 Polder 3 (Station-2, Ichamoti river) 24.0 16.0 12.0 8.0 4.0 Date 3-Sep 5-Jul 6-May 7-Mar 6-Jan 7-Nov 8-Sep 10-Jul 11-May 12-Mar 12-Jan 13-Nov 14-Sep 16-Jul 17-May 0.0 18-Mar Salinity (ppt) 20.0
  • Most of the land in the polders can be irrigated or drained by gravity Elevation (above mean sea level, m) <0. 0 <0.60 <1.00 <1.20 <1.60 <1.80 % 0 15 61 80 95 98 High tide water level 2.9 m High tide water level 2.7 m Average water level 1.3 m Average water level 1.0 m Average water level 1.0 m Low tide water level 0.0 m Low tide water level -0.50 m Lower-Shalta river Kazibacha river
  • Message 2: There is huge potential for greatly increasing productivity through cropping system intensification and diversification Advances in development of new rice, upland crop varieties and aquaculture species high rice/upland crop yields in areas/seasons not previously possible More profitable, less risky aquaculture systems Advances in Cropping system research, crop, fish, water mgt Tremendous opportunity for cropping system intensification and diversification across all salinity regimes of the coastal zone
  • Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas 1. Aus-aman-boro (~16 t/ha) M J J A S O Aus (100-105 d) T. Aman (130-140 d) 1 Aug D J F M A 25 Nov 20 July 1 May N 5 Dec M 5 Apr Boro (140-145 d) Successfully implemented on-farm for 2 years – 7th crop – polder 43/2F HYV Short duration Salt tolerant HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant HYV Medium duration “Early” sowing 15
  • Cropping system intensification for low salinity areas 2. Aus-aman-rabi (~10 t/ha rice + 8 t/ha maize OR 3 t/ha sunflower etc) A M J J A S O N Aus (100-105 d) 10 July J F 15 Nov 30 June 10 Apr D T. Aman (130-140 d) M A 1 5Apr Rabi (130-140 d) 1 Dec Successfully implemented on-farm for 2 years – 7th crop – polder 43/2F HYV Short duration Salt tolerant HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant HYV Maize Sunflower, Water melon Chilli etc. 16
  • Polder-30: Subpoldering and Community based Water Management Sub-polder Community based water management Unit/ Block Considerations for Sub-polderization:  Land level  Canal system  Tidal characteristics of the peripheral rivers  Road network
  • Cropping system intensification for medium salinity/water short areas 1. Aman-boro (~9 t/ha) M J J A S O N D J F M A 25 Nov 20 July T. Aman (130-140 d) 1 Aug 5 Dec Successfully implemented on-farm – polder 30 HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant M 5 Apr Boro (140-145 d) HYV “Early” sowing Shorter duration Salinity tolerant 18
  • Cropping system intensification for medium salinity areas 2. Aman-rabi (~5 t/ha rice + 7 t/ha maize, 2-3 t/ha sunflower etc) A M J J A S O N D J F 15 Nov 10 July T. Aman (130-140 d) M A 1 5Apr Rabi (130-140 d) 1 Dec HYV Medium duration Submergence tolerant Water stagnation tolerant HYV Maize Sunflower, Water melon etc Chilli etc. 19
  • Cropping system intensification for high salinity areas Shrimp+fish – Rice+fish Jan Feb Gher preparation Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Rice nursery Oct Nov Rice+Fish+Prawn Shrimp+Fish Virus free shrimp seed Filtered water Feeding Water depth >0.5 m Trench (deep water refuge around perimeter Sep Drainage/ leaching TOTAL kg/ha Shrimp 300-500 Fish 2,000-3,000 HYV Salt tolerant Water stagnation tolerant Submergence tolerant 3 in 1 Dec
  • Extrapolation domain: Aus (HYV)-Aman (HYV)-Rabi cropping system
  • Message 3: Invest in water management infrastructure with (a) fundamental changes in thinking about the polders and their roles • Polders: High positive impact • Current design: 1960s concept, to support a single crop of traditional aman rice - tall, late maturing, low yielding. • It prevents taking advantage of the advances of new varieties, cropping intensification • The roles of the polders must change and include “enabling cropping intensified and diversified production systems”
  • Message 3: Invest in water management infrastructure with (a) fundamental changes in thinking about the polders and their roles (Cont.) • Polder must be able to • Intake fresh river water for irrigation • Store fresh water when surrounding river water becomes saline • Drain strategically (message 3b) • Control/Intake of brackish water • Convey water to/from the fields • Change mind set. Polder is NOT simply the embankment and peripheral sluices. It is an integrated water management unit, with due attention given to infrastructure within the polder • Repair, rehabitate ?
  • Message 3: Invest in water management infrastructure with (a) fundamental changes in thinking about the polders and their roles (Cont.) • Polder must be able to • Intake fresh river water for irrigation • Store fresh water when surrounding river water becomes saline • Drain strategically (message 3b) • Control/Intake of brackish water • Convey water to/from the fields • Change mind set. Polder is NOT simply the embankment and peripheral sluices. It is an integrated water management unit, with due attention given to infrastructure within the polder • Repair, rehabitate renovate?
  • Message 3: Invest in water management infrastructure with (b) Improving drainage as the key intervention and the entry point for cropping intensification and diversification. Enables cultivation of HYV & earlier harvest (midNov) 1. Strategic drainage during the rainy season “Early” establishment of boro rice after aman Reduces storage requirement for fresh water to finish the crop off after the rivers become too saline 25
  • Message 3: Invest in water management infrastructure with (b) Improving drainage as the key intervention and the entry point for cropping intensification and diversification (Cont.) 2. Drainage at end of aman crop 3. Drainage canals 4. Drainage in aquaculture 5. Future Enables soil to dry for early (timely) establishment of rabi crops Provide storage for irrigation water Water depth control in ponds to reduce fish diseases More important due to SLR 26
  • Message 3: Invest in water management infrastructure with (c) due attention to rural transport network….. Rural transport structures strongly influence water flow and distribution. They are often not under the jurisdiction of water sector organizations. They should be considered as an integral part of water management infrastructures
  • Message 3: Invest in water management infrastructure with (c) due attention to rural transport network, creating subhydrological units within the polders Rural transport network lend itself to defining subhydrological units (mini-water sheds), each having coherent hydrology, land uses etc… • Reduce high-low land, water needs conflicts • Facilitate practice community water management Sub hydrological units become units of community water management
  • Message 4: Maintenance of infrastructure is the Achilles heel of water management in the polders of the coastal zone…… Poor condition of embankments, khals and gates due to poor maintenance Deferred maintenance  new projects, new infrastructure  neglect and deterioration WMOs were created for solving ‘deferred maintenance’ Why communities don’t maintain? - Finance problems - Incentive problems - Public goods dilemma - if communities don’t fix it in time, government or donor will in a few years BUT
  • Message 4 (cont.): …..deferred maintenance of infrastructures can be resolved with a three-tier strategy 4a. Community level: increasing ownership and contributions from the community • Give WMOs access to income generating assets like lease of common land or micro-credit • Devise fair rules for collection of maintenance funds • Creating strong local institutions with ownership over the infrastructure from the start of the projects. • Creating homogenous WMO’s so that members have shared interest - sub hydrological units
  • Message 4 (cont.): …..deferred maintenance of infrastructures can be resolved with a three-tier strategy 4b. Local government level: Effective use of LGI’s social safety-nets funds in maintenance of infrastructure • These funds are accessible to UP • Also creates jobs for the landless • Strengthens the role of LGIs in water governance
  • Message 4 (cont.): …..deferred maintenance of infrastructures can be resolved with a three-tier strategy 4c. Central government and donor level: creating a Trust Fund • Long term DonorGovernment Trust Fund for Maintenance of Water related infrastructure • All polders get allocations for maintenance from interest accrued by the Trust Fund. Development partner GoB Donor Government Trust Fund
  • Message 5: A transparent and accountable water governance framework is needed for the polders. 5a. Formalizes and enhances the role of LGI in all levels of water governance The present institutional coordination is too fragmented and disjointed. UP chairman and members are de-facto decision makers, conflict moderator - but do not necessarily have a formal role Enhancing the coordinating roles of LGIs in water management will - Improve coordination - Give longer perspectives than project based WMOs - Encourage UP and LGIs to use Social Safety Net Funds for water infrastructure maintenance
  • Message 5 (cont.): A transparent and accountable water governance framework is needed for the polders. 5b. Follows the IWRM river-basin governance principles; give due attention to interactions among different scales and sectoral users. Treating polder as one integrated water management unit, with sub-units Scale/Hierarch y Boundary SubHydrological units (sHU)1 Local rural roads/levees Sub Polder (sP) Provincial/district roads/embankments Polder Embankment Members Management/Coordination Committee People living in sHU WMG coordination led by reps of Mouza/Union Parishad) sHU sP WMC (Reps of WMGs) coordination led by reps of Union Parishad) sP P WMC (Reps of sPWMC) coordination led by reps of Union/upazila Parishad)
  • Message 6. Access to data and modern tools in planning, policy analysis, technology targeting and consensus building is needed. 6a. Models and databases must be able to integrate socioeconomic and biophysical data and have access to multidisciplinary, multi-institutional datasets. - GBDC has effectively used water models and GIS-based spatial analyses - GBDC uses many secondary data. No single partner has all the data needed for spatial analyses of extrapolation domain. - Most of the data in Bangladesh were generated by/products of projects. There has been no central data repository. - Tracking down and accessing data is costly, time consuming
  • Message 6. Access to data and modern tools in planning, policy analysis, technology targeting and consensus building is needed. 6b. A Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) should be in place. - Encourages BGD institutes to openly share GIS data. - Include a sustainable and transparent data sharing mechanism, based on mutual trust and understanding. - Greatly enhance the ability of all concerned to respond to policy makers needs.
  • Take home message The adoption of improved species/varieties, and cropping system intensification and diversification across the coastal zone offers the potential for Bangladesh to make a quantum leap in meeting future food security requirements. Unlocking the potential requires effective investment in water management, but with • fundamental changes in thinking-about the roles of the polders and their water management infrastructure, • and major reforms in institutional coordination and water governance mechanisms.
  • Thank you