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Conservation Practice and Fertilizer Management to Improve Productivity of Wheat-Maize-Rice Cropping System in Coastal Uplands

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By Dr. Md. Ataur Rahman (Wheat Research Centre, BARI)

Revitalizing the Ganges Coastal Zone Conference
21-23 October 2014, Dhaka, Bangladesh
http://waterandfood.org/ganges-conference/

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Conservation Practice and Fertilizer Management to Improve Productivity of Wheat-Maize-Rice Cropping System in Coastal Uplands

  1. 1. Conservation Practice and Fertilizer Management to Improve Productivity of Wheat-Maize-Rice Cropping System in Coastal Uplands Dr. Md. Ataur Rahman Wheat Research Centre, BARI
  2. 2. q 20% of total land are in coastal areas q 53% (0.83 m ha) are affected by different degrees of salinity q Saline areas and intensity of slinity are gradually increasing Introduction
  3. 3. Soil Salinity Map 1973 2009
  4. 4. Seasonal variation in water availability is very contrast Salinity
  5. 5. Post paddy harvest field Lac of quality irrigation water cause
  6. 6. Less Productivity and Less Cropping Intensity Coastal Region
  7. 7. How to Improve the Productivity of Coastal Soil ? i.  Introduction of saline tolerant crop variety ii.  Cultivation winter crops those require less water iii.  Reclamation of Soil Salinity through minimizing capillary movement. iv.  Reclamation of Soil Salinity through Mulching and tillage. Like - Crop residue retention, Raise bed planting v. Introduction of suitable cropping pattern.
  8. 8. Considering all these points We Introduced an Intensive Triple Cereal System Integrating crop varieties, conservation practice of bed, use of crop residue as mulch and fertilizer management
  9. 9. Objectives v Introduce wheat-maize-rice cropping system in coastal uplands. v Evaluate CA and fertilizer management in soil salinity remediation. v Maximizing system productivity to contribute to food security of the farmers living in coastal regions of Bangladesh.
  10. 10. Materials and Methods Location : ARS, BARI, Shatkhira (22⁰43´N 89⁰06´E) Design : Split-plot Main plot : 3 levels of Nutrient management 1. Recommended fertilizers (RF) 2. RF+ 50% K and S 3. RF+ Ash @ 2.0 t/ha Sub plot : 4 levels of Soil management 1. Conventional (Flat) 2. Flat+ Straw Mulch @ 3.0 t/ha 3. Bed planting 4. Bed+ Straw Mulch @ 3.0 t/ha
  11. 11. Materials and Methods (Cont) Test Crops : 3 Wheat- Variety : BARI GOM 25 Maize- BARI Hybrid Maize 7 Rice- BRRI Dhan 39 Starting with wheat sowing 2011 and ended with rice harvest in 2013 Recommended Fertilizer (RF): Wheat: N120 P30 K50 S20 B2 kg/ha Maize : N200 P50 K100 S40 Zn5 kg/ha Rice : N80 P25 K50 S20 kg/ha
  12. 12. Materials and Methods (Cont) NovJan Mar Feb Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep OctDec RiceWheat Maize Accommodation of component crops in the system
  13. 13. Results
  14. 14. Treatment RF RF+KS RF+Ash Mean Flat 2.98 3.22 3.54 3.24 B Flat + Mulch 3.44 3.67 3.78 3.63 A Bed 3.09 3.29 3.63 3.34 B Bed+ Mulch 3.70 3.89 4.14 3.91 A Mean 3.30 b 3.52 ab 3.77 a Interaction LSD (0.05)= 0.41 Table 1. Effect of fertilizers, conservation practices and their interactions on wheat yield (t/ha) Mean of 2 years
  15. 15. Mulch level (Rice Straw) RLD (cm/cm3) NUE (Agronomic) Grain yield (t/ha) Control 0.48 b 24.7 b 3.48 b 2.0 t/ha 0.57 ab 27.3 ab 3.80 ab 4.0 t/ha 0.66 a 30.6 a 4.14 a Table 2. RLD, NUE and Grain yield of wheat under straw mulching Rahman et al. 2011
  16. 16. Fig 2. Interaction effect of fertilizers and conservation practices maize yield (Mean of 2 years) 0 2 4 6 8 RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash Yield(t/ha) Flat Flat+Mulch Bed Bed+Mulch
  17. 17. B B + M F + MF RF
  18. 18. Fig 3. Salinity in surface soil (0-10 cm) in time influenced by different fertilizer levels 3  Dec  12   12  Dec  12   9  Mar  13   20  Mar  13      10    April  13   30  Dec  12   21  Jan  13   7    Feb  13   20  Dec  12   15  Feb  13   24  Feb  13   28  May  13   20  May  13   10  Jan  13   30  Jan  13   30  Mar  13      19    April  13    30  April  13   10  May  13    8  June  13   20  June  13   2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 EC(dsm-1 ) RF RF + KS RF + Ash Wheat growing period Maize growing period
  19. 19. 3  Dec  12   12  Dec  12   9  Mar  13   20  Mar  13      10    April  13   30  Dec  12   21  Jan  13   7    Feb  13   20  Dec  12   15  Feb  13   24  Feb  13   28  May  13   20  May  13   10  Jan  13   30  Jan  13   30  Mar  13      19    April  13    30  April  13   10  May  13    8  June  13   20  June  13   2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 1/1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10 1/11 1/12 1/13 1/14 1/15 1/16 1/17 1/18 1/19 1/20 1/21 EC(dsm-1 ) Flat Flat + Mulch Bed Bed + Mulch Fig 4. Salinity in surface soil (0-10 cm) in time influenced by conservation practices Wheat growing period Maize growing period
  20. 20. Fig 1. Influence of CA treatments on Soil Moisture IR Rain25Nov12 04Dec12 03May13 12May13 23May13 18Dec12 05Jan13 14Dec12 15April13 24April13 25June13 26Jan13 15Jan13 15May13 31May13 08June13 17June13 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 1/1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10 1/11 1/12 1/13 1/14 1/15 1/16 1/17 1/18 SoilMoisture(%wt.) Conventional Conservation Bed Bed + Conservation Wheat early growth stages Maize early growth & vegetative stages 85 cm of rain in 3 weeks (Rahman et al. 2013) IR IR IR
  21. 21. Fig. 5: Interaction effect of fertilizers and conservation practices on rice yield (1st year 2012)
  22. 22. Treatment RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash Mean Flat 4.68 4.25 5.26 4.73 B Flat + Mulch 5.12 4.47 5.85 5.16 A Bed 4.72 4.34 5.17 4.74 B Bed+ Mulch 5.22 4.52 5.68 5.13 A Mean 4.94 b 4.40 c 5.50 a Interaction LSD (0.05)= 0.40 Table 3. Effect of fertilizers, conservation practices and their interaction on rice yield in 2nd year
  23. 23. Table 3. Effect of fertilizers, conservation practices and their interaction on rice yield in 2nd year Treatment RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash Mean Flat 4.68 4.25 5.26 4.73 B Flat + Mulch 5.12 4.47 5.85 5.16 A Bed 4.72 4.34 5.17 4.74 B Bed+ Mulch 5.22 4.52 5.68 5.13 A Mean 4.94 b 4.40 c 5.50 a Interaction LSD (0.05)= 0.40
  24. 24. Now the BIG Question? Nutrient availability under triple cereal system
  25. 25. 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 Initial RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash OM(%) 0.06 0.065 0.07 Initial RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash TotalN(%) 10 11 12 13 Initial RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash P(µg/g) 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 Initial RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash K(meq/100g) 8 9 10 11 Initial RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash Ca(meq/100g) 2.5 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 Initial RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash Mg(meq/100g) 106 110 114 118 122 Initial RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash S(µg/g) 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 Initial RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash Zn(µg/g) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Initial RF RF+ KS RF+ Ash B(µg/g) Fig 6. Nutrient contents in soil after two cycle of cropping as affected by fertilizer levels in reference to initial soil OM N P S MgK Ca Zn B
  26. 26. 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Flat Flat+Mulch Bed Bed+Mulch OM(%) 0.06 0.065 0.07 0.075 Flat Flat+Mulch Bed Bed+Mulch TotalN(%) 9 10 11 12 13 Flat Flat+Mulch Bed Bed+Mulch P(µg/g) 8 9 10 11 Flat Flat+Mulch Bed Bed+Mulch Ca(meq/100g) 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 Flat Flat+Mulch Bed Bed+Mulch K(meq/100g) 2.5 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 Flat Flat+Mulch Bed Bed+Mulch Mg(meq/100g) 106 110 114 118 122 Flat Flat+Mulch Bed Bed+Mulch S(µg/g) 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 Flat Flat+Mulch Bed Bed+Mulch Zn(µg/g) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Flat Flat+Mulch Bed Bed+Mulch B(µg/g)Fig 7. Nutrient contents in soil after two cycle of cropping as affected by conservation practices OM N P K Ca Mg S Zn B
  27. 27. Conclusion v  Use of Ash with recommended fertilizers and straw mulching resulted higher yields of component crops by eliminating several constraints including salinity and favoring plant growth factors including nutrient availability. v Bed planting alone was ineffective in controlling salinity; But much application either in bed or flat was equally effective. v Soil nutrients were not decreased due to triple cereal system rather it was improved when ash and straw mulch was applied. Due attention is needed to improve the productivity of coastal uplands using the locally available resources of Ash and crop residues as mulch.

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