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Bringing Back Seasonality into Coastal Aquatic Agricultural Systems

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By Kazi Ahmed Kabir, S.B. Saha, Manjurul Karim, Craig A. Meisner, Michael J. Phillips

Revitalizing the Ganges Coastal Zone Conference
21-23 October 2014, Dhaka, Bangladesh
http://waterandfood.org/ganges-conference/

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Bringing Back Seasonality into Coastal Aquatic Agricultural Systems

  1. 1. Bringing  back  seasonality  into  coastal   aqua3c  agricultural  systems:     shi$ing  from  shrimp  monoculture  to  more   produc3ve,  diversified  and  resilient  systems  
  2. 2. BANGLADESH   Salinity fluctuates from high in dry season to medium in rainy season Research site
  3. 3. Research Questions: 1.  Can  brackishwater  aquaculture  system  produc9vity  be   increased?   2.  What  species  combina9on  is  more  suitable  for  increased   produc9vity,  profitability  and  resilience  in  year-­‐round   brackishwater  areas?   3.  What  are  the  costs  and  benefits  of  monoculture  versus   polyculture?  
  4. 4. 4   Before   Construc3on   Ponds   Pond  
  5. 5. Aquaculture Treatments in 2012 3 treatments with 4 replications: 1. Farmer’s mgt: Polyculture, shrimp+ different fish sp 2. Improved mgt1: Rotational Monoculture, shrimp-tilapia-prawn (Cycle 1, 2 & 3) 3. Improved mgt 2: Rotational Polyculture, shrimp+tilapia – tilapia+tengra - prawn+tengra( Cycle 1, 2 & 3) Tilapia  +  CaEish   Prawn  (fresh  water)   Shrimp  (brackish  water)  
  6. 6. Aquaculture Treatments in 2013 3 treatments with 4 replications: 1. Farmers’ mgt : Polyculture Shrimp+ several fish spp, multiple stockings & harvests 2. Improved mgt 1: Rotational monoculture Dry season - shrimp (2 crops) (Cycle 1 & 2) Wet season - tilapia (Cycle 3) 3. Improved mgt 2: Rotational polyculture Dry season - shrimp+tilapia (2 crops) (Cycle 1 & 2) Wet season - polyculture rohu + singh + magur (Cycle 3) Carp   Singh  &  Magur   Shrimp     Nona  tengra   Tilapia   ……………Dry  season……………………   ……………….Wet   CaFish  (3  spp)  
  7. 7. Aquaculture treatments (4 reps) Treatments   Culture   paLerns   2012   2013   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3   Farmer’s   prac3ce   Poly   Shrimp  +  different  sp  of  fish   (mul3ple  stocking  &   harves3ng)   Shrimp  +  different  sp  of  fish   (mul3ple  stocking  &   harves3ng)   Improved   prac3ce  1   Mono   Shrimp   Tilapia       Prawn       Shrimp   Shrimp       Tilapia       Improved   prac3ce  2     Poly   Shrimp   Tilapia   Tilapia   Tengra       Prawn     Tengra       Shrimp   Tilapia     Shrimp   Tilapia     Rohu     Singh   Magur   Managed  by  farmers  
  8. 8. Management Prac3ce   Farmer’s   Prac3ce   Improved  1  &  2   Liming   200  kg  ha-­‐1   200  kg  ha-­‐1   Water  filtering   Unfiltered   Filtered   Predatory  Fish   No  control   Controlled   Disinfec3on   No  disinfec9on   Disinfected   Fer3liza3on   No  fer9lizer   Fer9lizer  &  dolomite   Shrimp  seed   Not  PCR  tested   PCR  tested   Feed   No  feed   Feeding     Water  replenishment   When  needed   When  needed   Post  stocking  fer3liza3on   Very  insufficient   When  primary   produc9on  is  low   Fish  seed   Some  wild   All  from  hatcheries  
  9. 9. Timeline 2012 Shrimp & fish Stocking 1 Shrimp disease in some ponds Harvest 3 AprilMarch Aug. Dec. Harvest 2 Sept. Stocking 3Harvest 1 & Stocking 2 June July Nov.May Oct. Dry season Wet season
  10. 10. Timeline 2013 Shrimp & fish Stocking 1 Rice harvest AprilMarch Aug. Dec. Harvest 2 Harvest 3 Sept. Harvest 1 Stocking 2 May July Nov. Stocking 3 Dry season Wet season
  11. 11. Water  Depth  (2012  versus  2013)   2012   2013   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   110   1   15   28   42   56   70   84   98   112   126   140   154   168   182   196   210   224   238   252   266   280   Depth  (cm)   7  March   Farmer's  prac3ce   Monoculture   Polyculture   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   1   14   28   42   56   70   84   98   112   126   140   154   168   182   196   210   224   238   252   Depth    (cm)   Days  of  culture   14  March   Farmer's  prac3ce   Monoculture   Polyculture   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3  
  12. 12. Water  Salinity  (2012  versus  2013)   2012   2013   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3   0   5   10   15   20   25   1   15   28   42   56   70   84   98   112   126   140   154   168   182   196   210   224   238   252   266   280   Salinity  (ppt)   7  March   Farmer's  prac3ce   Monoculture   Polyculture   0   5   10   15   20   25   1   14   28   42   56   70   84   98   112   126   140   154   168   182   196   210   224   238   252   Salinity  (ppt)   Days  of  Culture   14  March   Farmer's  prac3ce   Monoculture   Polyculture   Cycle  1   Cycle  2   Cycle  3  
  13. 13. Results
  14. 14. 0   500   1000   1500   2000   2500   3000   3500   4000   4500   Farmer's  prac3ce   Monoculture   Polyculture   Yield  (kg  ha-­‐1)   Shrimp   Fish   2012   a   b   c   a   b   c   0   500   1000   1500   2000   2500   3000   3500   4000   Farmer's  prac3ce   Monoculture   Polyculture   Yield  (kg  ha-­‐1)   Shrimp   Fish   2013   a   b   c  a   b   c   (1)  System  produc3vity    -­‐  annual  Produc3on  (kg/ha)  in  2012  &  2013    
  15. 15. 2012 Culture patterns Cycle-1 (91 days) Cycle-2 (71days) Cycle-3 (100 days) Total Shrimp Tilapia Tilapia Tengra Prawn Tengra Shrimp Fish Farmer’s practice 278 days *209.84a 728.14a Mono 197.77 -­‐   2367.4 8 -­‐     363.63   -­‐   556.40b 2367.48b Poly 172.64 1163.41   1519.78       352.34     231.74 286.50   404.38c 3322.04c 2013 Culture patterns Cycle-1 (70 days) Cycle-2 (50 days) Cycle-3 (99 days) Total Shrimp Tilapia Shrimp Tilapia Magur+ singh Tilapia/ rohu Shrimp Fish Farmer’s practice 259 days 390.05a 659.41a Mono 565.62 -­‐   291.77   - - *3307.71 857.39b 3307.71b Poly 373.64 1744.45   193.19   777.90   557.63   **480.05 566.83c 3560.02c Cycle-­‐wise  produc3on  (kg/ha)  in  2012  &  2013    
  16. 16. Fish  Category   2012**   2013**   Remarks   Tengra-­‐Tilapia   41654.38a   -­‐  Risk  free;  Less  profit   -­‐  Tengra  may  escape  if  dikes   are  not  good   Tengra  -­‐Prawn   116000b   -­‐  Depends  on  availability  of   prawn  Juvenile;     -­‐  Tengra  may  escape  if  the   dikes  are  not  good   Carp-­‐Singh-­‐Magur   147816.11c   -­‐  Singh  &  Magur  culture   depends  on  rainfall   -­‐  Singh  &  Magur  may  escape   if  the  dikes  are  not  good   Shrimp-­‐Tilapia   101450.71b   128000b   -­‐Shrimp  risky  but  9lapia   provides  the  back  up   (2)  Species  combina3ons  -­‐  gross  margin  (BDT/per  cycle/ha)  from   different  polyculture  species  composi3on    
  17. 17. (3)  Polyculture  vs   monoculture   -­‐100   0   100   200   300   400   500   600   700   Farmer's  prac3ce   Monoculture   Polyculture   BDT  1000  ha-­‐1     Variable  cost   Total  return   Gross  margin   2012   a   b   c   -­‐100   0   100   200   300   400   500   600   700   800   Farmer's  prac3ce   Monoculture   Polyculture   BDT1000  ha-­‐1     Variable  cost   Total  return   Gross  margin   2013   a   b   b   Cost,  return,  gross   margin     (including  farmer’s  labor  &   land  leasing  value)  
  18. 18. Ponds Species Total  cost   (BDT/ha) Produc3on   (kg/ha) Sale   (BDT/ha) Gross  return   (BDT/ha) 3 Shrimp 212240   515.97   257985   297985   Tilapia 2557.58   281333.8   281356   8 Shrimp   182147     349.26   174630   174630   Tilapia 2079.62   228758.2   228758   6 Shrimp 157900   0   0   0   Tilapia 1930.79   193079   193079   11 Shrimp 157137   0   0   0   Tilapia 1920.71   192071   192078   Impact  of  crop  diversifica3on  in  shrimp  ghers   (Shrimp  –  3/m2  &  3lapia  2/m2,    culture  period  –  91  DOC)
  19. 19. Promising  opportuni3es  for  scaling   !   275,000  ha  of  all  year-­‐round  saline  aquaculture  area   !   G2  extension  farmers  involved  par9cipatory  adop9on  trial   and  sharing  with  other  farmers   !   Implemen9ng  community  water  management  for   brackishwater  aquaculture  with  BRAC   !   Extension  materials  prepared  and  disseminated  
  20. 20. Key  implementa3on  challenges   Markets  systems   •  Access  to  quality  shrimp  and  fish  seed   •  Access  to  quality  feed  in  local  market     Aquaculture  management   •  Maintaining  water  depth   •  Preven3on  of  escaping  cat  fish  through  dikes   •  Aqua3c  weed  control     Community   •  Poor  feeder  canal  for  gravita3onal  water  exchange   (need  community  level  management  –  common   theme!)   •  Poaching  risk  
  21. 21. Conclusion   q  Significant  improvements  in  produc3vity  and  income   through  a  diversified  culture  system  under  beLer   management  prac3ces.   q  Shrimp-­‐3lapia  polyculture  system  profitable  with  greater   resilience  compared  to  other  species  combina3ons.  Risks  of   shrimp  can  be  recovered  by  return  from  Nile  3lapia     q  Polyculture  and  alternate  cropping  monoculture  more   profitable  than  current  prac3ces.  Gross  margin  from   polyculture  higher  than  monoculture    
  22. 22. Lesson  learned   q  Considerable   opportuni3es   exist   for   improving   aquaculture  in  the  coastal  “year-­‐round”  saline  zone.   q  Technologies  appear  to  be  very  “adoptable”  by  farmers   q  Community   water   management   can   further   improve   op3ons  for  aquaculture  and  risk  management   q  Possible  to  integrate  vegetable  produc3on  from  dikes  in   wet  season  and  support  livestock  food  by  growing  saline   tolerant  grass  on  the  dikes   q  Saline  water  represents  an  asset….  
  23. 23. Aquaculture production must more than double by 2050 to satisfy projected fish demand Million tons Sources:  Produc9on  data  1961–2010:  FAO  (2014a),  FAO  (2014b).  Aquaculture  produc9on   projec9ons  2011–2050:  Authors’  calcula9ons  assuming  a  linear  growth  rate  of  2  Mt  per  year.  
  24. 24. Project aquaculture production …. South Asia is a hotspot for future fish demand •  S.  Asia  –    from  2.2  to  4.4  mt   •  India  –  from  3.9  to  8.6  mt  

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