Flood and Watershed Management: Dealing
with Natural Disasters
(Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security)
Alok ...
Natural Disaster Occurrence
Estimated economic damages (US$ X 1,000)
 National Flood Commission (1980): 40 m ha
 Current...
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
1953
1956
1959
1962
1965
1968
1971
1974
1977
1980
1983
1986
1989
1992
1995
1998
2001
2004
20...
2008 Flood -Shifted Course of Kosi River after Breach
 Unlike earlier floods, in 2008 river changed its
path by several k...
DAMAGE TO AGRICULTURE LANDS: Uttarakhand Flood
Asan river shifted to about 200 m at
some places
Encroachment of riverine l...
Government’s Initiatives, Programs and Policies
 Policy Statement - 1954
 High Level Committee On Floods – 1957 & Policy...
Engineering/ Structural Measures
 Dams & Reservoirs
 Embankment
 Flood walls
 Channel Improvement
 River Diversion
 ...
Contingency crop planning for in-season and post flood period.
District level Contingency Plans of 500 districts develop...
RAINY SEASON :
DEEP WATER
RICE
(cv. Hangseswari)
Multiple use of water in seasonaly flooded areas
Grain yield 2.0-2.8 t/ha...
Rice-fish
Secondary Reservoir for Multiple us
Fishery, Irrigation,
Horticultre/Vegetable, duck
Fish Trenches – cum- Raised...
Coping strategies in Phallin affected
Areas
 In paddy, staking for the lodged crop & application
of urea (25 kg) & MOP (1...
 Integrated watershed management focused on natural, animal and social resources has
emerged as a powerful concept in dev...
Key Lessons
 Emphasis on non-structural measures in conjunction with structural
measures
 Importance of integrated flood...
National Disaster Management Structure
Central Government Mechanism
 Central Water Commission (CWC)
 Brahmaputra Board
...
Challenges:
• Addressing climate variability and climate change
• Upstream –downstream implications
• Preserving ecosystem...
Reflections & Way Forward
 Combination of large, medium and small storage options
 Emphasis on information management, a...
Flood and Watershed Management: Dealing with Natural Disasters
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Flood and Watershed Management: Dealing with Natural Disasters

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May 16 in Parallel Session 3E "Earthquakes, Hurricanes, Floods & More: Dealing with Natural Disasters". Presented by Alok K. Sikka.

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Flood and Watershed Management: Dealing with Natural Disasters

  1. 1. Flood and Watershed Management: Dealing with Natural Disasters (Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security) Alok K Sikka DDG (NRM) Indian Council of Agricultural Research & Technical Expert (Watershed Development), National Rainfed Area Authority, Planning Commission, Government of India New Delhi
  2. 2. Natural Disaster Occurrence Estimated economic damages (US$ X 1,000)  National Flood Commission (1980): 40 m ha  Current Estimate (XII Plan): 49.814 m ha  Annual average area and population affected due to flood : 7.2 M ha and 3.19 million respectively.  Brahmputra-Meghna, Ganga and Indus most affected basins  39 districts chronically flood prone Flood Affected Area Annually  Average 7.2 M Ha  Maximum 17.5 M Ha (1978)  Minimum 1.096 M Ha (2006) 24% 19% 12% 11% 6% 5% 23% Uttar pradesh Bihar Assam West Bengal Orissa Andhra Pradesh Other States source: prevention web.net
  3. 3. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1953 1956 1959 1962 1965 1968 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 CattlelostNos.(thousand) Year Cattle lost Nos. Flood Damages 1953 - 2011 Maximum Average Area affected (M ha) 17.50 (1978) 7.2 Crop affected (M ha) 12.29 (2005) 3.79 Damage to crops value (million $) 1217.9 (2003) 186.5 Cattle lost (Nos) 618248 (1979) 96593 Damage to public utilities (million $) 2918.2 (2009) 316.3 Total damaged (million $) (crop, cattle, public utilities) 5425.8 (2009) 602.0 Affecting Food & Nutritional Security Major Flood Events in Recent Periods 1998 Assam has been suffering floods regularly since 1998. 2004 Bihar Flood 2005 Flooding in Maharshtra & Gujarat 2008 Kosi Flood in Bihar 2009 Flooding occurred across many parts of South India in Oct 2009 2010 The Leh floods occurred on 6 August 2010 2012 Brahmaputra Flood 2013 2013 North India floods in Uttarakhand 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1953 1956 1959 1962 1965 1968 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 Damagetocropsarea(Mha) Damagetocropsvalue(million$) Year Damage to crops value, Million $ Damage to crops area in, M ha
  4. 4. 2008 Flood -Shifted Course of Kosi River after Breach  Unlike earlier floods, in 2008 river changed its path by several kilometres  More than 2.5 lakh houses destroyed.  Much higher submerged area (crops in 1.06 lakh hectares were destroyed) Sand casting in agricultural field at Bishanpur, Patharghat block
  5. 5. DAMAGE TO AGRICULTURE LANDS: Uttarakhand Flood Asan river shifted to about 200 m at some places Encroachment of riverine lands Washing away agricultural field adjoining River and stream: Uttarakhand Affected paddy fields (50 ha) Ganjam, Orissa Submerged paddy field Kendrapara, Orissa Submerged sugarcane field Kendrapara, Orissa Flood Damages during Tropical Cyclone Phailin-2013-Orissa
  6. 6. Government’s Initiatives, Programs and Policies  Policy Statement - 1954  High Level Committee On Floods – 1957 & Policy Statement of 1958  National Flood Commission (Rashtriya Barh Ayog) – 1980  Committee on flood management North- Eastern States- 1988  Committee on flood management Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, U. P.-1988  National Commission for Integrated Water Resource Development - 1999  Expert Committee to Review the Implementation of the RBA-2003  Committee to identify critical Anti-erosion scheme of Ganga Basin states – 2003  Task Force on flood Management /Erosion Control-2004  National Water Policy ( 1987/ 2002/2012) Projects/Schemes:  Centrally sponsored schemes for soil conservation/Watershed Management in the catchments of River Valley Projects & Flood Prone Areas  Critical flood control, river management, anti erosion, drainage development  Flood Forecasting, flood plain zoning  ISRO Disaster Management Support Program : Flood Hazard Zonation  National Flood Risk Mitigation Projects- Mitigation or reduction in risk
  7. 7. Engineering/ Structural Measures  Dams & Reservoirs  Embankment  Flood walls  Channel Improvement  River Diversion  Anti Erosion Works Non Structural Measures  Flood Forecasting & Warning  Flood Plain Zoning  Flood Proofing Catchment Area Treatment  Watershed Management  Channel Treatment Present Status of Flood Management Activities 87 27 5 9 4 18 9 15 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 COVERS MAJOR AND INTER STATE RIVER BASINS. 175 STATIONS INFLOW 28 STAGE 147  National Guidelines on Disaster Management – Flood Disasters Flood risk and vulnerability Early warning mechanism Catchment protection and river‐basin approach
  8. 8. Contingency crop planning for in-season and post flood period. District level Contingency Plans of 500 districts developed for floods, drought, cyclone, etc. Flood management in flood planes: community nurseries of rice, cultivation of submergence/flood tolerant rice varieties (eg. Swarna- sub 1), direct seeding of sprouted seeds of short duration rice cultivars, sowing of kharif pulses where rice cultivation is no more possible, promotion of raised and sunken bed techniques, tillage management techniques Swamp taro Colocasia esculenta: Duration:10 months; Feb-Dec, water chest nut, Gorgon nut, etc. Crop Planning for Flood Prone Areas Waterchestnut as flood resilient crop Makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb)
  9. 9. RAINY SEASON : DEEP WATER RICE (cv. Hangseswari) Multiple use of water in seasonaly flooded areas Grain yield 2.0-2.8 t/ha depending upon the time, depth and duration of flooding Water productivity enhanced from nil to about Rs. 7.0 /m3 Post-monsoonMonsoon 3.5m 9.5 m9.5 m 3.5m 3.0 m 3.0 m Dugout Area 1-1.5 m wide berm in between bunds and trenches Side Slope- 1:1) 2.5 M Pond based farming (Annual/Perennial)
  10. 10. Rice-fish Secondary Reservoir for Multiple us Fishery, Irrigation, Horticultre/Vegetable, duck Fish Trenches – cum- Raised beds Duck Fish Hatchery 28.0 29.7 81.0 132.6 93.6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Rice+wheat Rice- fish+wheat Fish Trench+Raised beds Secondary Reservoir (Fish+Hort) Fishin Reservoir NetProfit('000Rs/ha/yr) Multiple use based IFS in Waterlogged areas Vermi Compost
  11. 11. Coping strategies in Phallin affected Areas  In paddy, staking for the lodged crop & application of urea (25 kg) & MOP (10-15 kg) after drainage  Spray of streptocycline @ 0.1 g/l for protection against the incidence of bacterial leaf blight.  Promotion of submergence tolerant varieties of paddy in next season  In sugarcane, drainage of excess water and propping of plants followed by a booster application of fertilizer.  In coconut, application of COC 3g/l in after clearing the broken/drooped leaves for young trees while fresh planting in place of uprooted older trees.  In banana, lodged plants be removed leaving good suckers.  Earthing up and staking of affected plantation crops and application of nutrients to minimize loss in productivity.
  12. 12.  Integrated watershed management focused on natural, animal and social resources has emerged as a powerful concept in development planning-a major program of agriculture and rural development  Has multiple objectives with multiple functions, with silt reduction and flood risk reduction as one of the objectives.  In the RVPs and catchment of flood prone rivers, it has helped in reducing peak runoff from 46.6 to 1.6% and sediment production rate in the range of 17-94%. Integrated Watershed Management Example of Sahastradhara - Watershed Area: 64 ha (slope stabilization measures, diversion drains, contour trenches, crib structures, retaining walls, bench terracing, geo textiles, live check dams, gabion check dams and spurs) Debris outflow was brought down to 6 t/ha, as against 550t/ha Monsoon runoff, reduced from 57 to 37%. Flood peaks got attenuated and ground water recharge increased Treated Watershed Untreated watershed in the vicinity of Sahastradhara 12
  13. 13. Key Lessons  Emphasis on non-structural measures in conjunction with structural measures  Importance of integrated flood management with coordinated planning and development of land, water and other related resources in the basin.  Integrated watershed management in catchment areas to reduce silt, attenuate flood peaks and enhance pereniallity of flow down- stream.  Disaster preparedness and time bound Contingency planning.  Emphasis on crop/agriculture contingency plans.  More investments for better flood forecasting and timely action, flood insurance, diversion of flood water and repair of embankments.  Broaden flood management strategy including rehabilitation of traditional drainage systems and productive use of flood waters.  Involving and empowering local community based institutions.
  14. 14. National Disaster Management Structure Central Government Mechanism  Central Water Commission (CWC)  Brahmaputra Board  Ganga Flood Control Commission  National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) State Level Mechanism Water Resources Departments Flood Control Board State Disaster Management Authority
  15. 15. Challenges: • Addressing climate variability and climate change • Upstream –downstream implications • Preserving ecosystems • Trans-boundary and interstate sources of risk • Coordination and converge: a major challenge Opportunities: • Productive use of flood water /low lying areas • Breeding of submergence tolerant deep water rice varieties and aquatic crops, • Intra-basin and Inter-basin water transfer /river linking • Diversion of flood water for groundwater recharge • Using advances in modeling and geo-informatics Challenges and Opportunities Areas of improvements & cooperation • Approach to ‘reducing risk at source’ rather than on ‘end‐of‐ pipe’ mitigation • Sharing of knowledge and experience and data products • Regional cooperation in trans‐boundary & interstate context • Scientific basis of understanding /academic research
  16. 16. Reflections & Way Forward  Combination of large, medium and small storage options  Emphasis on information management, and strengthening of flood forecasting & early warning systems using satellite based information with hydraulic and hydrologic models  Integrated flood management plans with greater focus on non-structural options  Paradigm shift to emphasize on rehabilitation of natural drainage systems and water bodies in participatory approach for improved carrying capacity.  Transform adversity into opportunity by productive use of flood waters/flood prone low lying areas adopting multiple flood water use based integrated farming systems.  Development of tool kits for Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM)  Guidelines on Agriculture Disaster Management for Floods including Best Practices.  Promote more use of groundwater in flood plain areas and allow flood water for groundwater recharge  Regional Dialogues for enhanced cooperation for flood risk reduction  River Basin Authorities/Organizations for integrated planning and management.

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