Productive, profitable, and resilientagriculture and aquaculture systems(G2)Manoranjan MondalCollaborative Research ScientistInternational Rice Research InstitutePresented in AAS Hub Scoping at Khulna
Coastal Zone Overview• Coastal is the mostimpoverish part of thecountry, with lowcropping intensity andlow productivity causedfood insecurity
Coastal Zone Overview• Main constrain foragricultural productionhas been defined as– Soil and water salinity– lack of fresh water indry season03691215182124Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecMonthRiverwaterSalinity(ds/m)High tide Low tide
Polder Construction vs Crop Production• To overcome constrains toagriculture, in 1960 –1970, GoB has built 135polders with mainmandate: control salinityintrusion and tidal surge• Thanks to the polders,area and rice productionin the coastal zone hasincreased
Water Management in Polder: Institutional Level• Various institution “manage”different part of the polder• BWDB: construction andmaintenance of theembankment and sluices• BADC: small irrigationsystem within polders• LEGD: outside polders• No one looks at polder is a comprehensive watermanagement unit
Background• Build on the successes of CPWF Phase 1 projects, especiallyfrom PN 10 and PN 7, in using short-duration stress-tolerantvarieties and on-farm water management for increasingopportunities for cropping intensification.• The new varieties with short duration and enhanced toleranceof abiotic stresses (salinity, submergence) developed by BRRI,BINA, IRRI, CIMMYT, BARI, and ICRISAT provide furtheropportunities for crop intensification and diversification.• The project will leverage on the BWDB’s work on IntegratedPlanning for Sustainable Water Management in improvingpolder infrastructure and management.• Experiences learned from CP10 in stocking of prawn and fishwith rice in the rice phase of the shrimp-rice system willcontribute to enhancing productivity.
Objectives• Validate new germplasm suitable for various agriculturalcropping systems and establish seed distribution networks intarget zones• Develop and disseminate more productive, profitable,resilient, and diversified rice-based cropping systems(including rice-aquaculture)• Enhance the productivity of homestead production systems• Develop novel brackish-water aquatic production systems forzones too saline for agricultural crops• Produce technology and policy recommendations for up- andout-scaling
Partners• Lead Institution: IRRI• Bangladesh– BRRI– BFRI– BRAC– WFC• India– CSSRI (Central Soil Salinity Research Institute)– CIBA (Central Institute for Brackish-WaterAquaculture )
Study Sites• Bangladesh– Polder 3 (Kaligonj, Shatkira)– Polder 30 (Batiaghata, Khulna)– Polder 43/2F (Amtali, Barguna)• India– Sandeshkhali, North 24 Parganas District– Kakdwip, South 24 Parganas District
Study Sites in BangladeshPol-43/2FPol-30Polder 3 :High SalinityPolder 30 : Moderate SalinityPolder 43/2F : Low SalinityPol-3
Study Sites• Bangladesh– Polder 3 (Kaligonj, Shatkira): This polder is characterized byhigh salinity, especially during the dry season. Goodpotential exists for increasing productivity of the rice-shrimp system and for enhancing aquacultural productionin the dry season by introducing modern technology ofmixed farming of shrimp, fish, etc. Rice yield during theaman (wet) season could also be increased considerably byreplacing the current local varieties with improved salt-tolerant varieties with shorter maturity to escape theperiods of higher salinity and increase duration for theshrimp season, as well as the period required for landpreparation between seasons.
Study Sites• Bangladesh– Polder 30 (Batiaghata, Khulna): This polder coversabout 4,500 ha, mostly affected by medium to highsalinity during the dry season and early in the wetseason. Cropping intensity is low, about 140%,despite the potential for two to three crops peryear. Possibilities also exist for incorporating fishculture with rice during the wet season and cageculture in canals in aman season.
Study Sites• Bangladesh– Polder 43/2/F (Patuakhali, Barisal): This polder haslow to medium salinity intrusion and low croppingintensity but potential for a substantial increase,and potential for triple cropping. Rice productivitycan also be further increased by replacing thecurrent local varieties with more productive salt-tolerant modern varieties.
Cropping Systems• Even with polders: Main crop is still single aman riceJun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunTraditional RiceSesame/Mungbean(0.5-1.0 t/ha)Traditional RiceAquacultureTraditional Rice(2-3 t/ha)Aquaculture
New Cropping Systems Development• With new varieties– Short duration– Non photoperiod sensitive– Salt tolerance• Cropping systems research• On farm water management– On farm storage– Rainfall• It is possible to have 2 or 3 crops per year which canavoid salinity and overcoming the water shortage inthe dry seasonSesame-Aman-F = 3-4 t/haBoro-F-Aman = 11-13 t/haAus-Aman-Rabi = 12-42 t/ha
A M J J A S O N D J F M A MBarisal Region: Aus-Aman-Boro Cropping System20 Dec01 May20 July01 Aug25 Nov 05 AprBoro (140 d)05 DecT. Aman (145d)T. Aus (100d)20 Apr15 May05 Aug15 Aug10 Dec 20 Apr20 Dec/05 Jan01 May10 Aug20 Aug15 Dec10 Apr25 Dec/10 JanDS. Aus (100d)
10 Apr30 June10 July15 Nov 1 AprRabi (120 d)1 DecT. Aman (145d)T. Aus (100d)A M J J A S O N D J F M A MBarisal Region: Aus-Aman-Rabi Cropping System10 Apr30 June10 July15 Nov 15 Apr15 Dec10 May30 July10 Aug15 Dec2 5 Apr25 Dec30 May20 Aug30 Aug5 Jan 15 May15 Jan
20 Apr20 July01 Aug25 Nov 5 AprRabi (120 d)5 DecT. Aman (145d)T. Aus (110d)A M J J A S O N D J F M A MKhulna Region: Aus-Aman-Rabi Cropping System1 May30 July10 Aug5 Dec 15 Apr15 Dec10 May10 Auf20 Aug15 Dec 2 5 Apr25 Dec20 May20 Aug30 Aug25 Dec5 May5 Jan
New Cropping SystemsBoro (140-145 d)1 May20 July1 Aug25 Nov5 Dec5 AprT. Aman (130-140 d)Aus (100-105 d)M J J A S O N D J F M A MRiver waterEC 1-5 dSm-1River waterEC 1-5 dSm-1Rainfall ~1500 mm leachingdown soil salinityAus-Aman-Boro Cropping System
New Cropping System10 Apr30 June10 July15 Nov1 5AprRabi (130-140 d)1 DecT. Aman (130-140 d)Aus (100-105 d)A M J J A S O N D J F M ARainfall ~1500 mm leachingdown soil salinityRiver waterEC 1-5 dSm-1River waterEC 1-5 dSm-1Aus-Aman-Rabi Cropping System
Constrains to New Cropping SystemsA M J J A S O N D J F M AT. Aman (130-140 d)Aus (100-105 d) Rabi (130-140 d)Deep flooding at the beginningof rainy season constrains theestablishment of aman rice andadoption of modern highyielding varietiesProlonged water log atthe end of rainy seasondelay establishment ofrabi crop
High TideLow TideLandLand SurfaceEmbankmentRiver BedSluice gate1-2 mHow to Adopt New Cropping Systems?• To realize the new cropping system, it is crucial toimprove the drainage of the polders• Can drainage be improved? Yes2-3 m
• Previous role: salinity andtidal surge prevention• Now with new croppingsystems, the polders haveadditional roles– Water supply and storage– Drainage• New function: polder has to betreated as one “watermanagement unit”Re-assess the Role of Polders inNew Cropping Systems
Productive,Profitable,andResilientAgricultureandAquacultureSystems(G2)Aquaculture-Rice SystemWater Treatment : D1 = Farmer’s Field Water Depth (30-40 cm): D2 = D1 + 20 cm = (50-60 cm) Stocking Treatment : S1 = Farmer’s Practice (control)Farmers practice was documented through a series of consultation meeting at 3 southern unions (Nalta,Vara Shimla and Tarali) of polder 3. Total 54 farmers participated in 3 consultation meeting.J F M A M J J A S O N DPenaeus monodon – 2/m2Metapenaeus Monoceros-4/m2Liza parsia 0.25/m2Rhinomugil corsula - 0.25/m2Oreochromis spp. - 0.25/m2Penaeus monodon -0.5/m2Penaeus monodon -0.5/m2Penaeus monodon-0.5/m2Penaeus monodon-0.5/m2Labeo rohita - 0.25/m2Catla catla - 0.25/m2Cyprinus carpio - 0.25/m2Cirrhinus mrigala - 0.25/m2Aman Rice
Productive,Profitable,andResilientAgricultureandAquacultureSystems(G2)Aquaculture-Rice SystemWater Treatment : D1 = Farmer’s Field Water Depth (30-40 cm): D2 = D1 + 20 cm = (50-60 cm) Stocking Treatment : S2 = Rotational MonocultureJ F M A M J J A S O N DPenaeus monodon3/sqm (early Feb)Oreochromis spp.-2/m2 (nursing will bestarted at late May andafter shrimp harvestingit will be released inthe GHER)Macrobrachium_rosenbergii2/m2 (nursing will be started inearly July and after Tilapia harvest itwill be released in the GHER)Aman RiceFor rice: Water will be drained out in June/July and land will be exposed to rain to wash-out deposited salt. Tilapia will take shelter in refugee pond during June/July. Rice will betransplanted in early August (30 d seedlings), basal fertilizers (P, K, S, Zn) will be applied1 d before TP and for N, USG will be applied 10 d after TP. Water depth will be increasedsynchronizing with plant height. Rice plant may take advantage of N application for fish(golda).
Productive,Profitable,andResilientAgricultureandAquacultureSystems(G2)Aquaculture-Rice SystemWater Treatment : D1 = Farmer’s Field Water Depth (30-40 cm): D2 = D1 + 20 cm = (50-60 cm) Stocking Treatment : S3 = PolycultureJ F M A M J J A S O N DPenaeus monodon - 2/sqmOreochromis spp - 2/sqmPenaeus monodon - 1/sqmOreochromis spp 1/sqmMystus gulio -1/sqm(nursing will be started atlate May and after Shrimp &Tilapia harvesting it will bereleased in the GHER)Heteropneustes fossilis – 1/m2Macrobrachium_rosenbergii -1/m2(nursing will be started at early July andafter harvesting of Tilapia and Tengra itwill be released in the GHER)Aman Rice
Productive,Profitable,andResilientAgricultureandAquacultureSystems(G2)Year-round AquacultureStocking Treatment: S1 = Farmer’s Practice (Control)Farmers practice was documented through a series of consultation meetings at 3 southern unions ( Nalta, VaraShimla & Tarali) of polder 3. Total 54 farmers participated in 3 consultation meetings.J F M A M J J A S O N DPenaeus monodon - 2/sqmMetapenaeus Monoceros 4/sqmLiza parsia 0.25/sqmRhinomugil corsula - 0.25/sqmOreochromis spp. - 0.25/sqmPenaeus monodon - 0.5/sqmPenaeus monodon -0.5/sqmPenaeus monodon- 0.5/sqmPenaeus monodon- 0.5/sqmPenaeus monodon- 0.5/sqmPenaeus monodon0.5/sqmLabeo rohita - 0.25/sqmCatla catla - 0.25/sqmCyprinus carpio - 0.25/sqmCirrhinus mrigala - 0.25/sqm
Productive,Profitable,andResilientAgricultureandAquacultureSystems(G2)Year-round AquacultureStocking Treatment: S2 = Rotational MonocultureJ F M A M J J A S O N DPenaeus monodon3/sqm (early Feb)Oreochromis spp. -4/sqm(nursing will be started atlate May and after shrimpharvesting it will bereleased in the GHER)Macrobrachium_rosenbergii -3/sqm(nursing will be started at early Julyand after Tilapia harvesting it willbe released in the GHER)
Productive,Profitable,andResilientAgricultureandAquacultureSystems(G2)Year-round AquacultureStocking Treatment: S3 = PolycultureJ F M A M J J A S O N DPenaeus monodon -2/sqmOreochromis spp. -2/sqmShrimp - 1/sqmOreochromis spp. 2/sqmMystus gulio - 3/sqm(nursing will be started atlate may and after shrimp& Tilapia harvesting it willbe released in the GHER)Heteropneustes fossilis - 2/sqmMacrobrachium_rosenbergii -2/sqm(nursing will be started at early Julyand after harvesting of Tilapia andTengra it will be released in the GHER)
Background• Intended to focus on homesteads, as opposed to the off-household “gher” aquatic agricultural farming systemsresearch.• Included analysis of vegetable, fish, livestock integrationin homestead lands and ponds of households in coastalareas of Bangladesh and West Bengal in India.• Research will pay special attention to the role of femalefarmers and impact of increase in salinity on homesteadproduction (vegetables, fruit, livestock in addition toaquaculture).
Background• Research will be preceded by a baseline survey andliterature review.• Purpose of survey is to benchmark understanding on howpeople use the resources, identifying options forimproving homestead economy, resilience, nutrition andhealth.• Purpose of the review is to evaluate input efficiencies,productivity and nutritional value of different models ofintegrated homestead farming in selected villages,representing different salinity and flooding risk.• Gender analysis should have been an integral part of thereview.
Progress• A survey of >1200 randomly selected HHs was conductedacross 3 polders (polder: 3, 30, 43/2F) in SW Bangladeshduring January-May.• Homestead size: average 20% of total land.• Landless (< 0.19 ha): 54 % HHs, followed by 26% with 0.2-0.6 ha.• Household income sources are different across land sizeclasses– Labour for landless group, agriculture for the HHs with land >0.2ha• 51% HHs have ponds with av area of 13 decimals (525 m2).• We are exploring the influence of pond on householdcharacteristics, but income seems to be positivelyassociated with presence of a pond.
Moving Forward• Research approach during 2012 which could combineanalysis of household survey data, ongoing FtF and CSISA• Research question:1. What are indicators of “improved” homestead systems?• These should reflect dimensions of homestead productionsystems, including productivity, resilience, nutritionalvalues, income, land size, seasonality. For ponds, we mayexplore size, production, productivity, no. of harvests etc.2. How indicators for an improved homestead system areassociated with relevant human developmentparameters?• Such as household size, education, children under 5,women-headed households etc.
Moving Forward3. What are the benefits households, women and childrenmight get by moving from a non-improved to an“improved” garden and pond?4. What are the best bets for household “improvements”?This analysis might also have to look at conditions relatedto influence of salinity? It could also explore possiblesynergies/conflicts/trade offs between homestead andghers investments.5. What are the blocks households face in achieving theseimprovements and how might these be overcome?• What is the role of AAS capacity building in addressingthese blocks? This would provide insights that mightcontribute to scale-ability, and actions to addressblocks/opportunities.
Existing Crop and Water Management ScenarioA M J J A S O N D J F M AT. Aman (140-160 d) Rabi (130-140 d)Deep flooding at the beginningof rainy season constrains theestablishment of aman rice andadoption of modern HYV riceProlonged water log atthe end of rainy seasondelay establishment ofrabi crop
Key Issues in Achieving Food Security• Key to increasing food production and improvingrural livelihoods in the coastal region of Bangladeshis improved water management,– Improved drainage to reduce the depth ofinundation during the rainy season– Drain-out water from rice fields rapidly at the endof the rainy season to allow timely establishmentof rabi crops– Maximize use of available freshwater for cropproduction in the dry season.
High TideLow TideLandLand SurfaceEmbankmentRiver BedSluice gate1-2 mCan Drainage be Improved?2-3 m
Objective• Overall objective of this study is to work in apilot “watershed” area to demonstrate thebenefits of improved water management atthe community level– to adopt improved crop and crop managementpractices– for safe harvest of the dry season crops to achievehigher land and water productivity.
Study Site: Kismat Fultola, Polder 30, KhulnaMini-watershedSluice gateRiver
Methodology• Study will be conducted at the community level in polder 30involving• Land owners (47 farmers) and tenants in watershed area• Local water users association and• Public representatives• Demonstrate the procedures of rainfall, river water and sluicegate management necessary for adoption of high yielding ricevarieties and associated fertilizer management techniques• to get higher productivity in the wet season• to demonstrate early establishment of non-rice crops forsafe harvest of the crops and consequently higherproduction and income
Methodology• Prior to rainy season, drainage networks and drainage outletwill be established to facilitate HYV rice cultivation for higherproductivity in the aman/rainy season 2012.• Provide good quality HYV rice seeds and training to adoptsimilar cropping calendar to facilitate N topdressing .• Drainage system will be managed to maintain a water depthof about 20 cm, above which water will be drained out.Terminal drainage 2-3 weeks before rice harvest to facilitateearly establishment of rabi crops.• Neighboring farmers (male and female), member of WUA,local leaders and journalists will be invited to provide insighton improved water management and cropping plan.• Monitoring of cultural practices for aman and rabi crops inand outside of the watershed area to compare with thefarmers’ previous practices
Improved Cropping System15 July15 Nov Mar-AprRabi (120-140 d)01 Dec-01 JanAman (140 d)M J J A S O N D J F M A MRainfall ~1500+ mmleaching down soil salinityRiver waterEC 1-5 dSm-1Aman-Rabi Cropping SystemResidualsoil waterTerminal DrainageTD DrainageYd (FP)= 2.5 + 0.5 t/haYd (IP) = 4.5 + 1.0 t/haIrrigation
Conclusion• With advances in germplasm/species, on-farmwater management, it is possible to have 2-3crops (ag+aq)/year despite of salinity andwater shortage in DS• Water management is the key, especially wehave to improve drainage• Polders have been built 40 years ago, with thenew farming systems– polders have new roles ….. new roles need newmanagement, new institution set up ……forfood security and increased income