Water buffer management, 3R – Retention, Recharge and Reuse


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Water buffer management, 3R – Retention, Recharge and Reuse

Francesco Sambalino

The water buffer
The 3R formula

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Water buffer management, 3R – Retention, Recharge and Reuse

  1. 1. Kajiado, Kenya 31th of October2012 Water buffer management 3R – Retention, Recharge and Reuse
  2. 2. Content• Introduction• The water buffer• The 3R formula• Examples• Planning
  3. 3. Fresh Water supply• Water and food security are determined by the availability of fresh water resources• Need for affordable locally available solutions to meet the goals (MDG, national, etc)• Climate change and increased populations bring extra stress on natural resources
  4. 4. 3R vision• Create a more resilient environment to stress factors such as drought• Enhance the availability of fresh water throughout the year• Boost smart water management practices adoption
  5. 5. What is the water buffer?• All natural and artificial water storage components in the landscape. • Shallow and deep aquifers • Green water (soil moisture) • Blue water reservoirs (natural and artificial)
  6. 6. The water buffer is like an old bucket…- The holes need to be closed (Retention)- Filling of the bucket must be improved(Recharge)- The use of water must be improved(Reuse)
  7. 7. What is water buffer management?• Ensure better storage of water in the landscape; as shallow groundwater, as soil moisture or in local surface reservoirs• Watershed management with 3R measures is seen as necessary to create a healthy water buffer
  8. 8. Key features• Work at scale and not piecemeal
  9. 9. Key features• Extend the chain of water users • Favor water re- circulation• Maximize the use of water resources
  10. 10. Key features Local planning at scale Adaptation to local physical and socio-economic conditions Synergy with watershed rehabilitation efforts
  11. 11. Key features Learn from successful local and international stories Documentation Dissemination
  12. 12. Abraha We Atsbeha, Tigray• 5.000 people, 900 households• Seasonal rainy season ca 550 mm, ET 1700 mm• Agriculture and livestock rearing
  13. 13. 30 years ago..• Runoff from the hills flooded the farmland• Eroded landscape, siltation of ponds• Most of the water lost as runoff water• Soil moisture deficiency and erratic streams
  14. 14. 30 years ago..• Really low crop productivity• Degradation of natural resources• Food deficiency for 7 months/yearMost of the communities under food aid programs
  15. 15. Approach change• Rehabilitation efforts started • By government • By World Food Program• Community is the beneficiary but also the key decision maker
  16. 16. Approach change• Community and GO planned jointly for watershed management• Planning committee in each village• 38 development teams of 25 people each
  17. 17. Hillsides treatment• Steep areas treated with: • Area exclosure • Hillside Terracing, and micro- basins • Trenches and the foothill • Gully control • Vegetative measures
  18. 18. Area Exclosureand cut and carry system
  19. 19. Trenches and planting pits
  20. 20. Flat areas• Treated with: • Soil and Water Conserrvation • Ponds • Check-dams
  21. 21. Gully treatment• Erosion control in upper areas• First check-dams to trap sediment• Following check-dams to retain water and boost recharge• In series
  22. 22. CheckdamGully treatment
  23. 23. CheckdamGully treatment
  24. 24. CheckdamGully treatment
  25. 25. Hand dugGully treatment well
  26. 26. Vegetable gardenGully treatment
  27. 27. Benefits• Increased recharge • From none to 600 hand-dug wells• Hillsides covered by grass and indigenous tree species• Reduced runoff and less flooding of lower areas
  28. 28. Benefits• Income increased by 50%• Fodder productivity increased by 100%• Diversified crop production• The life conditions generally improved • Only few households still need aid
  29. 29. 19752007
  30. 30. 19752007
  31. 31. 19752007
  32. 32. Success factors• Precarious situation with few alternatives• Strong, enlightened leadership• Community led, sense of ownership• Proper bio-physical characteristics
  33. 33. Success factors
  34. 34. Success factors In your opinion: •What are the main differences between Tigray and Kajiado?
  35. 35. Planning• Context is changing • Bio-physical • Topography • Social • Institutional• To reach scale a participatory approach is required from planning to implementation and management
  36. 36. Planning• Stakeholder analysis • Who are the main water users? • Who affects the water resources? • Who is affected by the change in water resources?• Creation of local stakeholder platforms • Example: Water Resource Users Association or WT• Build up awareness and knowledge
  37. 37. Planning (2)• Catchment analysis • Water cycle, vegetation, soil erosion processes • Land-use mapping • Problem identification, analysis and prioritization • Identification of local solutions and gaps for 3R innovations
  38. 38. Planning (2)In your opinion:•What are the main challenges inKajiado - Elangata Waus?
  39. 39. Planning• Development of 3R sub-catchment plan (Where) • Groundwater storage • Open and closed reservoirs • Soil moisture improvement• Development of plan (who does what) • Measures to create storage • Catchment rehabilitation • Income generating activities • Management
  40. 40. Planning• Calendar development• Budget • Community contribution • Financing• Need for extra training
  41. 41. Planning• Understand the landscape • What are the main land-use and needs for each of them? • What are the conditions of the rangeland? • What are the conditions of the inhabited areas? • Characterize the slopes • Estimate the slopes gradient • Are the slopes suffering from high erosion rates
  42. 42. Planning• Understand the needs • What are the main concerns, needs and priorities of the local communities? • How can 3R techniques improve the situation?
  43. 43. Visualize – Read the landscape• To understand water dynamics: • Where is runoff generated? • Where does the water flow?
  44. 44. Visualize – Read the landscape• To seek 3R potential spots and areas • Can the runoff stored? • How and where? • How can be reused • How measures connect to each other? • Can the technology be adapted to the local context• Field assessment of potential 3r measures
  45. 45. …IT CAN CHANGE TO THIS! Bee hivestrenches & closure eyebrowsClosure - revegetation Cutoff drains waterway bunds compostStabilization checks Micropond- horticulture Herring bones & fruit trees
  46. 46. Plateau treated with stone faced bunds SS dams in series + closure ofwith runoff-runon system using C/CA catchment area (plantation of1:1 – tie ridging and stabilization along crops on SS dam based uponbunds with legume trees/shrubs + sedimentation rate – start withcontrol grazing. ring cultivation). Escarpment under closure + checkdams on small gullies Hillsides with trenches and eyebrow basins C/CA 3-5:1 for trees +/- cash crops in lower slopes. Streambank plantation and stabilisation.Farm dam forlivestock uses, fish,etc. Large water pond based onStone bunds on upper parts flooded area using percolationand stone faced soil bunds on dam (earth dam + gabion flowmedium and lower slopes + Irrigated perimeters using hand- structure). Cultivation duringlateral spillways and gully dug wells (each for 0.1-0.25 ha the dry season on residualcontrol. Bunds also stabilised plots) – horticulture. Microponds moisture.with legume shrubs. also possible, including in villages.
  47. 47. Useful references www.bebuffered.com3R website rich in resources and contacts www.samsamwater.comWebsite rich of reference material, tools and data sources www.thewaterchannel.tvweb-based video portal with many videos on water related topics
  48. 48. Asante Sana! Questions to the speaker: fsambalino@metameta.nl www.metameta.nl