Water buffer management, 3R – Retention, Recharge and Reuse
Kajiado, Kenya 31th of October2012 Water buffer management 3R – Retention, Recharge and Reuse
Content• Introduction• The water buffer• The 3R formula• Examples• Planning
Fresh Water supply• Water and food security are determined by the availability of fresh water resources• Need for affordable locally available solutions to meet the goals (MDG, national, etc)• Climate change and increased populations bring extra stress on natural resources
3R vision• Create a more resilient environment to stress factors such as drought• Enhance the availability of fresh water throughout the year• Boost smart water management practices adoption
What is the water buffer?• All natural and artificial water storage components in the landscape. • Shallow and deep aquifers • Green water (soil moisture) • Blue water reservoirs (natural and artificial)
The water buffer is like an old bucket…- The holes need to be closed (Retention)- Filling of the bucket must be improved(Recharge)- The use of water must be improved(Reuse)
What is water buffer management?• Ensure better storage of water in the landscape; as shallow groundwater, as soil moisture or in local surface reservoirs• Watershed management with 3R measures is seen as necessary to create a healthy water buffer
Success factors In your opinion: •What are the main differences between Tigray and Kajiado?
Planning• Context is changing • Bio-physical • Topography • Social • Institutional• To reach scale a participatory approach is required from planning to implementation and management
Planning• Stakeholder analysis • Who are the main water users? • Who affects the water resources? • Who is affected by the change in water resources?• Creation of local stakeholder platforms • Example: Water Resource Users Association or WT• Build up awareness and knowledge
Planning (2)• Catchment analysis • Water cycle, vegetation, soil erosion processes • Land-use mapping • Problem identification, analysis and prioritization • Identification of local solutions and gaps for 3R innovations
Planning (2)In your opinion:•What are the main challenges inKajiado - Elangata Waus?
Planning• Development of 3R sub-catchment plan (Where) • Groundwater storage • Open and closed reservoirs • Soil moisture improvement• Development of plan (who does what) • Measures to create storage • Catchment rehabilitation • Income generating activities • Management
Planning• Calendar development• Budget • Community contribution • Financing• Need for extra training
Planning• Understand the landscape • What are the main land-use and needs for each of them? • What are the conditions of the rangeland? • What are the conditions of the inhabited areas? • Characterize the slopes • Estimate the slopes gradient • Are the slopes suffering from high erosion rates
Planning• Understand the needs • What are the main concerns, needs and priorities of the local communities? • How can 3R techniques improve the situation?
Visualize – Read the landscape• To understand water dynamics: • Where is runoff generated? • Where does the water flow?
Visualize – Read the landscape• To seek 3R potential spots and areas • Can the runoff stored? • How and where? • How can be reused • How measures connect to each other? • Can the technology be adapted to the local context• Field assessment of potential 3r measures
…IT CAN CHANGE TO THIS! Bee hivestrenches & closure eyebrowsClosure - revegetation Cutoff drains waterway bunds compostStabilization checks Micropond- horticulture Herring bones & fruit trees
Plateau treated with stone faced bunds SS dams in series + closure ofwith runoff-runon system using C/CA catchment area (plantation of1:1 – tie ridging and stabilization along crops on SS dam based uponbunds with legume trees/shrubs + sedimentation rate – start withcontrol grazing. ring cultivation). Escarpment under closure + checkdams on small gullies Hillsides with trenches and eyebrow basins C/CA 3-5:1 for trees +/- cash crops in lower slopes. Streambank plantation and stabilisation.Farm dam forlivestock uses, fish,etc. Large water pond based onStone bunds on upper parts flooded area using percolationand stone faced soil bunds on dam (earth dam + gabion flowmedium and lower slopes + Irrigated perimeters using hand- structure). Cultivation duringlateral spillways and gully dug wells (each for 0.1-0.25 ha the dry season on residualcontrol. Bunds also stabilised plots) – horticulture. Microponds moisture.with legume shrubs. also possible, including in villages.
Useful references www.bebuffered.com3R website rich in resources and contacts www.samsamwater.comWebsite rich of reference material, tools and data sources www.thewaterchannel.tvweb-based video portal with many videos on water related topics
Asante Sana! Questions to the speaker: firstname.lastname@example.org www.metameta.nl