Synthesis of Southern Africa on wheatproduction, constraints, market and future                          C le Roux, E Moro...
South Africa: Wheat area plantedSource: CELC
South Africa: Wheat, Summer and Winter rainfall    areas plantedSource: BFAP
South Africa: Wheat productionSource: CELC
South Africa: Wheat production, domestic use and     importsSource: BFAP
South Africa: Wheat exportsSource: SAGIS
South Africa: Wheat importsSource: SAGIS
South Africa: Profile of Wheat Industry• Commercial                         99%• Small-Holder                      <1%• Dr...
South Africa: Profile Small-holder producer• 8% own their land• 42% farm on commercial land• 45% members of farmer organis...
South Africa: Production areasSummer Rainfall Areas
South Africa: Production areasWinter Rainfall Areas
South Africa: Small Holder needs• Financial incentives such as input subsidies, insurance against  droughts and tax rebate...
South Africa: Commercial production realities 2012/2013• Wheat production in the winter rainfall  and irrigation areas to ...
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe: Wheat productionWheat Production trends from 2000 to 2011       Year         Area planted (Ha)   Production (t) ...
Zimbabwe: Wheat productionWheat Production by province for the year 2011 in comparison to 2010 seasonProvince             ...
Zimbabwe: Wheat productionWheat Production Trends from 2000 to 2011
Zimbabwe: General production realitiesInput Supply• In the 2011 winter wheat season, the Government set aside US$10   mill...
Zimbabwe: General production realitiesSeed• Most farmers accessed wheat seed through the Government  Subsidised Programme•...
Zimbabwe: General production realitiesFertilisers• Government availed fertilisers at a subsidised price of US$15 per 50kg ...
Zimbabwe: General production realitiesChemicals• Use of herbicides was the principal weed control measure• Farmers bought ...
Zimbabwe: General production realitiesElectricity• Electricity availability improved compared to the 2010 season• ZESA in ...
Zimbabwe: General production realities    Irrigation• Water was available for the winter wheat crop except for certain    ...
Zimbabwe: General productionChallenges• Although seed and fertilisers were available at GMB depots on time,   financial co...
Zimbabwe: Recommendations• Emphasise proper production practices in an endeavor to attain the   genetic potential of the c...
Wheat Production and Imports1                                                   Production (‘000 tons)   Imports (‘000 ton...
Conclusion• Southern Africa has the potential to be ‘wheat secure’ by means  of national production but only through:• Inc...
Regional perspective – Southern Africa: production, constraints, market, future
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Regional perspective – Southern Africa: production, constraints, market, future

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Presentation by Dr. Cobus LeRoux (ARC, South Africa) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 8, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Regional perspective – Southern Africa: production, constraints, market, future

  1. 1. Synthesis of Southern Africa on wheatproduction, constraints, market and future C le Roux, E Morojele & R Patose, ARC, South Africa Tegwe Soko, Bruce Mutari, Zimbabwe
  2. 2. South Africa: Wheat area plantedSource: CELC
  3. 3. South Africa: Wheat, Summer and Winter rainfall areas plantedSource: BFAP
  4. 4. South Africa: Wheat productionSource: CELC
  5. 5. South Africa: Wheat production, domestic use and importsSource: BFAP
  6. 6. South Africa: Wheat exportsSource: SAGIS
  7. 7. South Africa: Wheat importsSource: SAGIS
  8. 8. South Africa: Profile of Wheat Industry• Commercial 99%• Small-Holder <1%• Dryland Production 56%• Irrigation Production 44%• Past 10 years: Production <19% Consumption >17%• Imports 37%
  9. 9. South Africa: Profile Small-holder producer• 8% own their land• 42% farm on commercial land• 45% members of farmer organisations• 61% of farms are smaller than 10 ha• 77% of farmers have (on average) 9 years experience
  10. 10. South Africa: Production areasSummer Rainfall Areas
  11. 11. South Africa: Production areasWinter Rainfall Areas
  12. 12. South Africa: Small Holder needs• Financial incentives such as input subsidies, insurance against droughts and tax rebates to encourage small holder wheat production• Collateral security to fund wheat production• Infrastructure in certain rural areas such as roads, rail, storage and communication• Small holder producers lack the opportunities of the economy of scale• Skills development in production, personnel management, marketing and finance• As for commercial producers the fluctuating international price increases risk taking within wheat production of small holder produces
  13. 13. South Africa: Commercial production realities 2012/2013• Wheat production in the winter rainfall and irrigation areas to increase slightly as a result of higher (>US$350/ton) international prices and higher yields• Wheat production in the summer rainfall areas to decrease significantly despite higher prices because of bigger maize plantings are expected for 2012, as well as less favourable soil moisture conditions during the early season• South African commercial producers are well organised, have access to need-driven R&D outcomes, well adapted cultivars, proper information and market access as well as a well functioning market
  14. 14. Zimbabwe
  15. 15. Zimbabwe: Wheat productionWheat Production trends from 2000 to 2011 Year Area planted (Ha) Production (t) Average yield (t/ha) 2000 42 551 229 775 5.4 2001 37 269 197 526 5.3 2002 39 000 195 000 5 2003 40 809 122 427 3 2004 70 585 247 048 3.5 2005 65 454 229 089 3.5 2006 67 201 241 924 3.6 2007 49 707 149 110 3 2008 31 663 34 829 1.1 2009 20 634 47 910 2.3 2010 13 950 40 693 2.9 2011 15 982 53 073 3.3
  16. 16. Zimbabwe: Wheat productionWheat Production by province for the year 2011 in comparison to 2010 seasonProvince 2011 Season 2010 Season Area Average Production Area Average Production Planted Yield (t/ha) (mt) Planted Yield (t/ha) (mt) (Ha) (Ha)Mashonaland West 4 721 3.84 18 132 4 713 3.48 16 416Mashonaland Central 3 258 3.39 11 035 2 816 4.23 11 931Mashonaland East 2 078 4.19 8 705 1 651 2.72 4 483Manicaland 2 203 2.45 5 392 2 024 1.35 2 728Midlands 1 343 3.68 4 936 715 1.19 853Masvingo 710 2.55 1 814 549 1.91 1 048Mat North 530 1.59 846 473 1.19 1 206Mat South 1 138 1.95 2213 1 009 1.94 1 959Total 15 982 3.32 53 073 13 950 2.91 40 623
  17. 17. Zimbabwe: Wheat productionWheat Production Trends from 2000 to 2011
  18. 18. Zimbabwe: General production realitiesInput Supply• In the 2011 winter wheat season, the Government set aside US$10 million for seed and fertilizer enough to cover 16 502 Ha• The main sources of accessing inputs during the season were a Government Input Scheme and the open market• Some farmers accessed inputs from contract farming and banks while other used carry over inputs• Access to inputs through the Government Input Scheme was limited by liquidity constraints especially for the small-holder farming sectors i.e. A1, SSCA, OR and communal farming sectors• Some farmers managed to purchase inputs at the subsidised prices
  19. 19. Zimbabwe: General production realitiesSeed• Most farmers accessed wheat seed through the Government Subsidised Programme• Seed at US$ 0.50/kg was available at GMB depots in all wheat growing districts. On the open market, wheat seed was being sold for US$ 1.40/kg• Due to cash constraints, most farmers in the SSCA, OR, A1 and communal farming sectors used retained or carry over seed
  20. 20. Zimbabwe: General production realitiesFertilisers• Government availed fertilisers at a subsidised price of US$15 per 50kg bag in all wheat producing districts• The large scale commercial and A2 farmers had financial resources to buy the fertilisers whereas communal and A1 experienced had financial limitations. Most of the fertilizer was accessed by A2 and LSCF farming sectors
  21. 21. Zimbabwe: General production realitiesChemicals• Use of herbicides was the principal weed control measure• Farmers bought herbicides from the open market• Small scale farmers who were affected by shortage of cash to purchase chemicals used hand pulling as an alternative method• Weed pressure was high in the small scale and communal farming sectors
  22. 22. Zimbabwe: General production realitiesElectricity• Electricity availability improved compared to the 2010 season• ZESA in collaboration with AGRITEX identified wheat growing clusters which were exempted from the normal load shedding schedules• Some farmers resorted to the use diesel generators to have an un- interrupted power supply• Electricity costs remain high and impacts negatively on profitability of wheat production• Certain farmers had their power disconnected due to non-payment of bills• Power cuts are reported to have led to pump and motor breakdowns
  23. 23. Zimbabwe: General production realities Irrigation• Water was available for the winter wheat crop except for certain areas where levels in dams were low• Pump and motor breakdowns were frequent mostly due to power cuts as well as poor or no maintenance• Most farmers could not repair or service irrigation equipment due to a cash flow problem• Crop losses were experienced in certain areas as a result of these breakdowns• Theft of irrigation equipment was also rampant
  24. 24. Zimbabwe: General productionChallenges• Although seed and fertilisers were available at GMB depots on time, financial constraints forced some farmers in the particular smallholder farmers to use retained seed and plant to without fertilisers• Control of Queleas were not effective since they were using motorised ground sprayers• Labour costs for harvesting and threshing were expensive, costing up to US$6 per day• Lack of financial support for irrigation equipment repairs and maintenance• Water and electricity charges were generally high
  25. 25. Zimbabwe: Recommendations• Emphasise proper production practices in an endeavor to attain the genetic potential of the cultivars which should be around 7 – 8 tons/ha• Upgrade production infrastructure especially irrigation systems to again get to ±70 000 ha under wheat production• Both these interventions may bring us closer to the ±450 000 – 500 000 tons of national consumption• Assistance with Quelea bird control• Financial support for production inputs
  26. 26. Wheat Production and Imports1 Production (‘000 tons) Imports (‘000 tons)Botswana ? 80 (from SA)Angola (2008) 4 750Lesotho (2012) 16 75Madagascar (2012) 0 125South Africa (2012) 1 900 1 500Zambia (2012) 237 50Zimbabwe (2012)2 53 2501 Mundi O-Index US Department of Agriculture2 National Consumption 400 – 450 000t/annum, Tegwe Soko
  27. 27. Conclusion• Southern Africa has the potential to be ‘wheat secure’ by means of national production but only through:• Increased and sustained Government commitment – R & D Funding – Staffing – Infrastructure• Increased R&D regional coordination, collaboration and prioritisation

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