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Open access developments in Africa: A Google perspective
 

Open access developments in Africa: A Google perspective

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Estelle Akofio-Sowah, Country Manager, Google Ghana

Estelle Akofio-Sowah, Country Manager, Google Ghana

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    Open access developments in Africa: A Google perspective Open access developments in Africa: A Google perspective Presentation Transcript

    • Open Access Developments in Africa:A Google perspective Estelle Akofio-Sowah 26th October 2011
    • Why Africa?Challenges & Opportunities…
    • Why Africa ?Last frontier for the online worldMore than 1 billion peopleInfrastructure is arriving:120Gbit/s >> 15,000Gbit/sPrices are dropping Africa has the highest growth: more than 50% annualgrowth in mobile subscriptions over the past 5 years 3
    • Diversity : Hundreds of Languages50+ African languages Swahili, Hausa, Yoruba, Amharic, Oromo, Somali, Igbo, Shona, FulaZulu, Chichewa, Kongo, Akan, Tshiluba, Kinyarwanda, Xhosa, Tigrinya,Makhuwa, Afrikaans, Gikuyu, More, Kirundi, Sesotho, Tswana, Kanuri,Umbundu, Northern Sotho, Luyia, Wolof, Bemba, Luo, Maninka, Tsonga,Sukuma, Ewe, Luganda, Lusoga, Kimbudu, Ibibio-Efik, Bambara, Ometo,Senoufo, Kalenjin, Kamba, Tiv, Gbaya, Zarma, Baoulé, Lingala, Beti-PahuinEuropean languages English French PortugueseMiddle-Eastern languages Arabic 4
    • Lack of Local Content 100% 80% RadioRoW 60% TV 40% MobileAfrica Internet 14% 20% 2% 0.2% 0.2% 0% GH KE NG SN UG SA Pop Users Hosts Dom ains SSA Social / Entertainment is Offline (2009 penetration comparison)• Globally, 94 domains per 10,000 people; Africa : 1/10,000• Africa: 14% of the world’s population but 2% of Internet users• Lack of online content spanning all African languages 5
    • Devices & Connectivity : A question ofaffordabilityMore than 50% of 16 year olds who are Pricefamiliar with the Internet don’t use it Price $ per multiplier of GDP perdue “lack of access to a PC” (SSA ICT Survey) month capita SSA $45 66x India $7 6xLimited access to financing options, US $15 0.3xbesides high proportion of peoplewithout bank accounts.Fixed line and mobile cost about thesame as in Europe, but broadband inAfrica is 10x more expensive than inEurope 6
    • Embracing Mobile If more people knew (and could afford) that their current mobile already allow them to access their email or even browse the Internet, Internet penetration in Africa would increase significantly! 7
    • A Closer Look at Ghana…
    • Online activities – what are people doing online? Email, search, instant messaging and social networking are all activities pursued to a great extent on computers and mobiles. However, across the two means of access, social networking reigns supreme in terms of being the main activity.Main Tend to do (TOP 5) Via Computer Via Mobile Phone Emailing 17% 84% Using social networking sites 59% 85% Using social networking sites 45% 78% Using a search engine 76% Using a search engine 13% 77% Emailing 68% Instant messaging/ chatting 70% Instant messaging/ chatting 61% Streaming/ downloading music/ radio 36% Streaming/ downloading music/ radio 47% Looking for news or information on a… 30% Looking for news or information on a… 30% Using online dictionaries or encyclopaedias 18% Viewing online photos 19% Viewing online photos 17% Streaming/ downloading TV/ Films 17% Streaming/ downloading TV/ Films 15% Using online dictionaries or encyclopaedias 15% Online gaming 13% Online gaming 14% Using video sharing websites such as… 13% Using video sharing websites such as… 11% Making internet calls/ Skyping 7% Reading/ downloading an eBook 6% Reading/ downloading an eBook 7% Making internet calls/ Skyping 5% Blogging 5% Blogging 5% Using online maps 4% Using online maps 3% Using online Auctions 3% Using online Auctions 3% Shopping online 2% Shopping online 3% Online banking 1% Online banking 2%Q10a. When you go online via computer, which are the five things that you tend to do the most often? Q10b. And which of these is the main reason? GOOGLE CONFIDENTIALQ15a. When you go online via mobile phone, which are the five things that you tend to do the most often? Q15b. And which of these is the main reason? 9 AND PROPRIETARYBase: all users via computer (n=747), all users via mobile (n=463)
    • Online content – PC versus Mobile Identical hierarchy of subjects looked or searched for via computer and mobile phone – no indication of a division of labour here. Via computer Via mobile phone Entertainment 77% Entertainment 84% News 74% News 63% Sports 60% Sports 58% Local information 39% Local information 32%Research for school/ Academic Research 35% Research for school/ Academic Research 32% Research for work 27% Research for work 20% Government 22% Government 16% Medical Information 18% Medical Information 16% Job hunting 17% Arts & Culture (theatres, concerts, etc) 11% Arts & Culture (theatres, concerts, etc) 16% Religion 11% Religion 14% Job hunting 9% Finance 14% Weather 9% Travel 13% Finance 7% Weather 11% Travel 6% Shopping 7% Shopping 5% None of these 3% None of these 3% Q10c. When you go online via computer, which of the following subjects do you tend to look at or search for? GOOGLE CONFIDENTIAL Q15c. When you go online via mobile phone, which of the following subjects do you tend to look at or search for? 10 AND PROPRIETARY Base: all users via computer (n=747), all users via mobile (n=463)
    • Google Zeitgeist – 2010 Top SearchesGlobal Fastest Rising Fastest rising Most frequentQueries searches, Ghana, 2010 searches, Ghana, 2010chatroulette waptrick.com Ghanaipad Opera Facebookjustin bieber World cup yahoonicki minaj facebook.com facebook.comfriv goal.com googlemyxer skype pictureskaty perry premier league yahoomailtwitter Ipad lovegamezer Storm over paradise lyricsfacebook Asamoah Gyan www.facebook.com 11
    • Drivers for increased internet usage (users) For computer users, current usage is most likely to be boosted by a combination of lower costs, easier access and improved connection speed. Mobile users place less emphasis on access. Via Computer Via Mobile Phone Most Encourage Any mention Most Encourage Any mention Lower cost 24% 39% Lower cost 25% 37% Faster 14% 33% Faster 18% 35% Easier access 18% 30% More knowledge 14% More knowledge 14% More reliable 12% More reliable 12% Discounted rates for frequent users 7% Discounted rates for frequent users 7% More relevant content 6% More relevant content 6% Safer access (secure, fewer viruses) 6% Safer access (secure, fewer viruses) 6% Charged by smaller connection times 5% Charged by smaller connection times 5% Consistent connection speed 4% Consistent connection speed 4% More content in my native language 3%Q21a/b. Which of these would encourage you to use the internet more via computer? GOOGLE CONFIDENTIALQ22a/b. Which of these would encourage you to use the internet more via mobile phone? 12 AND PROPRIETARYBase: all users (n=986)
    • Barriers to internet usage (non-users) Non users are predominantly held back by a lack of knowledge and hardware, but a sizeable % indicate that they are simply not interested. Main reason Any reason I dont know enough about the internet 37% 83% I dont know where or how to connect 8% 64% I dont own a computer 60% I am simply not interested 16% 51% I dont have time to go online 46% I dont own a mobile phone that can connect to the internet 42% There is nothing relevant for me on the internet 40% I dont have easy access to the internet 40% I dont see a need to use the internet 40% Internet connections are too expensive 37% There is not enough information in my local language 37% It is too expensive to connect in a cyber cafe 36% I have other and better things to spend my money on 36% I dont feel comfortable going to a cyber cafe 34% There are things on the internet that are not appropriate for my… 31% There is too much offensive content on the internet 30% There are no cyber cafes near me 30% Internet connections are not reliable enough 27% The internet is not for people like me 26% The electricity supply is too unreliable 26% I am concerned about online security 25% Internet connections are too slow 25% Other people go online for me and give me the information I need 23%Q25a. Which of these apply to you personally? GOOGLE CONFIDENTIALQ25b. Which of these best describes why you personally do not use the internet? 13 AND PROPRIETARYBase: all non-users (n=1014)
    • Google’s Mission
    • Google’s Mission for Africa Get users online by enabling an accessible, relevant and sustainable Internet ecosystem1. Access : reducing access as a barrier to all potential users Many opportunities2. Relevance : making the Internet available for relevant and useful to local people businesses and developers3. Sustainability : helping to build an Internet ecosystem in Africa that is viable and sustainable in the long- term 1 5
    • Access
    • Access Barriers: Reducing Latency• Supporting the foundation and encouraging the expansion of Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) around Africa: equipment and expertise.• Educating developers to create efficient websites and applications to minimise loading times. Installing Google caches around Africa to reduce international bandwidth requirements for ISPs, improve the user experience and reducing latency. Google providing Internet bandwidth, Apps and engineering support for the Universities across Africa  New Product Features Gmail inbox preview can be used in high-latency environments to improve the user experience. 17
    • Relevance
    • Making the Internet relevant & useful to local people• Localising Google search  Many African languages, Hausa, Akan, Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans, Sesotho, Setswana• Creation of more African content online  Kenyan Gazette, Nelson Mandela archives  Google Books partnerships• Developing products that are locally meaningful and enabling African developers to do the same  More detail on next slide• Using technology to solve African problems for Africans  Launching specific Google products for African countries 19
    • Creating the African Internet Experience:ProductsGoogle Search in multiple African languagesYouTube in South Africa and KenyaGoogle Maps in 30+ domains and in AfrikaansStreetView in South AfricaGoogle Earth with Africa coverageGmail SMS in Ghana, Senegal, Kenya, SAGmail in Swahili and AmharicGoogle country domains - most SSA countriesGoogle Translate in Swahili and AfrikaansGoogle News – many African countriesSuggest in 12 new African languagesGoogle Suggest, Maps and Google Chrome in SwahiliDriving Directions in Kenya, Ghana & SALocal listingsTransliteration for Amharic on GWS in EthiopiaTrader in Uganda, Ghana and KenyaGoogle Baraza – pan-African Q&A 2 0
    • Sustainability
    • Helping to build an Internet ecosystemin Africa• Outreach to Students, Developers & Businesses  We are helping to strengthen and empower the community of internet users in Africa  We are working with universities: raising the level of curriculum, raising awareness about Google, and encouraging innovation and entrepreneurship  We are also working and partnering with start-ups, publishers, the media, NGOs and more• Awareness and Education  We are raising awareness among African consumers, business and Government, about the opportunities and value of the Internet 22
    • Student, Developer & Entrepreneur OutreachEducate the community on tools and applications that make the web andmobile experiences better and more relevantHow we engage:  G-Africa events and DevFest  Barcamps, code clinics, competitions, tech hubs.  Apps, Android and Marketing Competitions  University programs, curriculum & tech talks2011 Results:  ~ 20,000 users reached  Participated in over 35 community events across 14 countries  Google Technology User Groups (GTUGs) from 1 – 17 2 3
    • Thank you! Thank you!"Lifes most persistent and urgent question is What are you doing for others?" MLK