OAA12 - The effects of making information available and the power of scientific communities


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Tom Olijhoek, Scientific Advisor on research of Tropical Diseases

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OAA12 - The effects of making information available and the power of scientific communities

  1. 1. Effects of Open Access and the power of scientific communities Tom Olijhoek Open Knowledge Foundation Wageningen UR Library This work is licensed under a
  2. 2. You are free to: Copy, share, adapt, or re-mix; Photograph, film, or broadcast; Blog, live-blog, or post video of; This presentation. Provided that: You attribute the work to its author and respect the rights and licenses associated with its components.Slide Concept by Cameron Neylon, who has waived all copyright and related or neighbouring rights. This slide only ccZero.Social Media Icons adapted with permission from originals by Christopher Ross. Original images are available under GPL at;http://www.thisismyurl.com/free-downloads/15-free-speech-bubble-icons-for-popular-websites
  3. 3. Comparing Tools for useDefinition and Open Access The cost of Effects of How to get with Open Needs and Toll Access Open Access Open Access Open Access Access publishing
  4. 4. Open Access is completely free and unrestricted access to Publications and Data A detailed Definition was published by the Budapest Open Access Initiative in 2001 (BOAI Definition) and an Update was published this year (2012) @ccess, the open access initiative at the Open Knowledge Foundation uses this DefinitionIn addition we strongly recommend using Creative Commons licenses, CC-BY for publications and CC0 for Data
  5. 5. whoneedsaccess.org All People NOT only scientists need access to research but can‟t get it because ofwith Open Access 40% of new readers are from outside academia Marcha_por_la_Educación_en_Santiago
  6. 6. “more than three-quarters of researchers based in the developing world consider lack of access both to be unethical and costing lives” ( MW Survey) SURVEY RESULTS Testimonials MalariaWorld MALARIAWORLD Research resources for diseases of the poor must be made available without cost to the poor and those who are committed to helping them95% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed . to the „statement that Scientific articles on Our management discourages us from supporting new open access malaria should be available for free to all in journals due to their low, or unassigned, impact factor. need of it‟ When did scientists start agreeing with this slave-type of agreement with publishing houses? How could this nonsense have started? We Only 2% never experience access problems inherited this sick system, but that does not mean we should allow it to continue In Africa, South America, and Asia, 41, 79, at my university the department only pay publication fees for persons and 92% of the respondents , respectively, with a permanent position. The rest of us have to find the moneyclaimed never to use HINARI or did not even somehow - or bribe a prof know about its existence Open-source is not without downsides. I favor a mixed model in developed countries with open access for developing countries.
  8. 8. 1,350 $ / article 5,333 $ / article 4 x less than Toll Access TOTAL 16 billion Eventually cost may go down to These are cost for funding agencies 250 $ / article On TOTAL Budget 300 billion Open access publishing Research funding now will then eventually be 20 x needs 5 % for publishing cheaper than Toll AccessSources: http://www.stm-assoc.org/2009_10_13_MWC_STM_Report.pdfSVPOW :http://svpow.com/2012/07/18/what-does-it-cost-to-publish-a-paywalled-paper-with-anyone/
  9. 9. SOMEHOW SOMEWHERE SOMEONE IS GOING TO PAY WHO PAYS? IS OPEN ACCESS SUSTAINABLE?Less than 1% of current Several studies show: OA benefits outweighscience funding will easilycover the cost of open the costs by a factor of 5 or moreaccess publishing Houghton (2009-2010)Funders and libraries are Swan (2010)now paying 5 % or $ 15 Brembs (2011)billion on a total funding of CED DCC final Report 2012$ 300 billion
  10. 10. The effects of Open Access“ Science & Politics Economics Education Open Open development science government Open Informed innovation education citizens
  11. 11. Open Access improves the quality of science OA enables new ways Open Access improves the of measuring Impact quality of science Articles can be Open Science prevents reviewed by many fraud Downloads & Open data prevents data social media buzz tampering reflect impact Open access enables new forms of Michael Include impact in other areas collaboration and than science discovery Nielsen Reinventing Discovery Open access enables citizen science
  12. 12. The Impact Factor is a main obstruction to Open AccessThe current publishing model exploits scientists addiction toImpact Factor. There is methadone OA, and then theres gettingclean.Ethan Perlstein.scientists are hesitant to publish in open access journals becauseemployers are always looking at impact factorSick of Impact FactorsI am sick of impact factors and so is science.The impact factor might have started out as a good idea, but itstime has come and goneStephen CurreyHow to get rid of the Impact FactorBjörn Brembs & Peter Binfield
  13. 13. PLoS Medicine, IF 2-11 (8.4) (The PLoS Medicine Editors (2006) The Negotiable Impact Factor Game. PLoS Med 3(6): e291.Irreproducible Rossner M, van Epps H, Hill E (2007): Show me the data. The Journal of Cell Biology, Vol. 179, No. 6, 1091-1092Mathematically unsound Weak correlation of individual article citation rate with journal IF Björn Brembs http://www.slideshare.net/brembs/limited- access-is-a-symptom-not-the-disease
  14. 14. „New‟ Definition of Scientific Impact
  15. 15. A-Vector: introducing a new form of journal level metrics Quality of editorial board Quality of peer-review • Citation index • “Transparency” indicators • Reputation • Criteria used by reviewers • Collaboration • Duration of review process • Reference density • Post-publication comments • Openness about • submission and Rejection rates • More indicators • potential conflicts of interest • Aims, scopes and expected readership • Reviewer‟s comments and editorial correspondence ( published alongside papers • More indicatorsA-vector: a new tool for qualityAssessment of OA journals
  16. 16. Less important Less Less fraud where you duplication publish Better use ofOpen data better resources All journal control of content onlinescientific quality More and accessible collaboration Open Reputation not Shorter time publications because of between selectivity but Less bias research and because of Crowd control practice quality
  18. 18. Pharmaceutical companies “hide” negative results for medicines GSK paid 3 billion fines because of fraud with paxol publications Side effects are often not published High percentage of medical publications are based on flawed experiments RESULT: MANY PEOPLE SUFFER FROM BAD MEDICINES AND EVEN FROM UNNECESSARY TREATMENTSSources: Howard Brody | Ben Goldacre | Richard Smith | John Ioannidis
  19. 19. OA enables higher education for all throughthe internet• eLearning initiatives like Coursera, eDX, UdacityLevel of education will rise rapidly• More education - more economic and social development
  20. 20. Science is the Open Access opens motor for Science for All economicOpen Access crucial for developmentscientists in the global south conference The Hague 25 oct 2012as long as scientific output remains behind walls of paidcontent, no possibility for a dialogue will exist Participation of scientists from Research is the Africa, Asia and key to fighting Latin America disease is necessary for success
  21. 21. How to Get Open Access Scientists hold the power in their own handsAttitude change is crucialCoordination of scientist networkedcommunitiesStructured information and focusedcommunities
  22. 22. “When I light my candle from yours, I gain from you without subtracting from you. That’s what sharing knowledge is like”. Peter Suber Open Access Toll Access getting new ideas by fear of losing ideas sharing Collaboration Competition Publish for impact Publish or perish Focus on quality Focus on quantity
  23. 23. Someone needs to The open coordinate these No consensus communities access on what openmovement is access isfragmented WHO? Open KnowledgeNo consensus Foundation?? Need to build on the best communitiesform of open @ccess OKFN? with common access ideas publishing OpenWetware?
  24. 24. We Need to information And it USABLE Datahubs repositories librariesArchives OA journals Social media Scientist Databases networks Discussion Indexing platforms services
  25. 25. In order to make optimal use of all possibilities of Open Access Main Task COMMUNITIES BE A SOURCE FOCUSSED ON OF TOPICS INFORMATION FOR ALLAfrican networkslike ir-africa.info PatientslikeMeResearchGate MalariaWorld MalariaWorld is a model open access community for malaria research MyScienceWork Ecancer.org
  26. 26. Platform for collaboration POSSIBLE PARTNERS ORGANIZE DATA Scientific libraries Open Data archive Open access publishers Publication archive Archive for preprints PubmedCentral Tool development EU openair Reference managing World Bank UNDiscussion, forum, news, jobs,OA Journal
  28. 28. BibSoup: Malaria Database 2010-2011 used by MalariaWorld Examples of use cc-by 2.5 unknown cc-by 2.0 Graphical representation of types of licences Graphical representation of the 1000 most in the malaria database. The largest part is cited articles in the malaria database. The “unknown” Header in the figure is the nr 1 citationOpen Access and the role ofscientific communities Tom Olijhoek & Mark McGillivray
  29. 29. Malaria Open Access Index developed in collaboration with MalariaWorld HOW OPEN IS MALARIA RESEARCH? J1 Percentage of a articles on malaria in a journal that are Open Access (Y-axis) J2 Percentage of the grand total of OA malaria articles that one journal publishes X-axis) The nine bubbles along the top, from left to right(be careful to note the thin sliver of PLoSOne (brown) and red that is bubble 6) * BMC Public Health * BMC Inf.Diseases * BMC Malaria Journal (blue) have Genomics * PLoS Medicine * PLoS Pathogens * Parasites and Vectors * highest index PLoS Negl Trop Diseases * PLoS One * Malaria Journal And finally the small one on the bottom left: * Virology JournalOpen Access and the role ofscientific communities Tom Olijhoek & Mark McGillivray
  30. 30. OpenWetWare is an effort to Open Source Drug Discovery (OSDD) is the concept of drug discovery where all data andpromote the sharing of ideas are shared in real time, and anyone mayinformation, know-how, and participate at any level. This prior disclosurewisdom among researchers and means that will be no patents and that anygroups who are working in biology technology is both academically and& biological engineering commercially exploitable by whoever wishes to do so.
  31. 31. Pilot research communities focus on tropical diseases: Open Source Biomedical Research for the 21st CenturyAn open, collaborative research community will find newways to do science, answering questions that currentinstitutions find difficult or impossible. Diseases found exclusively in tropical regions predominantly afflict poor people in developing countries. The typical profit-driven / pharmaceutical economic model fails with these diseases …………