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Institutional responses to thechanging higher education         environment:        the case of UCT         Laura Czerniew...
Open scholarship, open all content       A HOLISTIC VIEW
OPENING SCHOLARSHIP                                                                                                       ...
An institutional culture perspective            CHANGE
INSTITUTIONAL CULTURAL TYPES                                                Policy definition:                            ...
INSTITUTIONAL CULTURAL TYPES                         Policy definition:                              Loose                ...
THE COLLEGIUM TYPE• Characterised by  o   loose institutional policy definition  o   informal networks and decision arenas...
UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN• Oldest South African university  o Top ranked African university    • QS World University Ranking...
PRESTIGIOUS RESEARCH UNIVERSITY • 5 Nobel Laureates • Booker Prize winner • Numerous internationally recognised   research...
TEACHING AT UCT•   Residential           • Funding subsidy for                            headcount & throughput•   Face t...
OPEN AGENDA AT UCT: PROJECTS        Scholar              Scholar   Scholar         Scholar             Student   Community...
HTTP://OPENUCT.UCT.AC.ZA
OUR APPROACH TOTHE OPENNESS AGENDAin the light of UCT’s culture
PRINCIPLES & STRATEGIES• Individual agency/ control• Maximum flexibility• Network & community building• Enabling, not requ...
HISTORICALLY• Opportunities for open agenda in the  eLearning space rather than OA  o Contributed to change strategy• No i...
MULTIPLICITY• Multiple strategies• Many small sites of innovation and  activity, aiming for agglomeration  across the inst...
ACADEMIC AGENCY• Decentralised uploading  o Individual academics upload and maintain    their resources directly• Pride of...
FLEXIBILITY• Granularisation of resources important• Whole courses• Single resources  o Ebooks  o Presentations  o Podcast...
INSTITUTIONAL COMMUNITY• IP Law Unit• Knowledge Co-op• Citizen Science projects in COL• Enterprise Content Management Proj...
ENABLING FRAMEWORK• Work enabled by new UCT IP Policy  o Specifically addresses issues relating to the    creation of OER ...
ADVOCACY
CHAMPIONS• At senior level  o DVC signs Cape Town Declaration (2008)  o VC signs Berlin Declaration (2011)
CHAMPIONS• Senior & middle level• OER Health Sciences - Dean
CHAMPIONS• Bringing the work of “early adopters”  above the radar
CHAMPIONS & CHANGE• In our experience  o Senior level support symbolic  o Vertical relationships do not cause    change pe...
ENABLERS: SMALL GRANTS            • 35 small grants in              2011 & 2012            • Up to R10 000 each           ...
INCENTIVES: SMALL GRANTS
OPENCONTENT GRANTS 2011/12FacultiesHumanities         11Health Science     8    TypeEngineering & BE   7    New course mat...
RESEARCH• Committed to researching practice o Cox, G (2012) Why would you do it, ... would a student   actually be interes...
How we are doingUCT OPENCONTENT
OPENCONTENT VISITS15 OCT 2011- 15 OCT 2012
OPENCONTENT LOCATION OF VISITS     15 OCT 2011- 15 OCT 2012
OPENCONTENT TRAFFIC & REFERRALS     15 OCT 2011- 15 OCT 2012
0              50                        100                                                                     200      ...
FACULTY CONTRIBUTIONS                              Centre for Higher       11%                    Education Development  3...
TYPES OF RESOURCES               Video                10%                                      Audio                      ...
CONCLUDING COMMENTS• A steady upswell rather than  mainstream• Integration of resourcing requirements  into existing struc...
REFERENCES• Czerniewicz, L and Brown, C (2009) study of the relationship  between institutional policy, organisational cul...
Laura Czerniewicz Laura.Czerniewicz@uct.ac.za        OpenUCT Initiative: http://openuct.uct.ac.za/      UCT OpenContent : ...
OAA12 - Institutional responses to the changing environment: The case of UCT
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OAA12 - Institutional responses to the changing environment: The case of UCT

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Laura Czerniewicz, Director, OpenUCT Initiative, University of Cape Town

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OAA12 - Institutional responses to the changing environment: The case of UCT

  1. 1. Institutional responses to thechanging higher education environment: the case of UCT Laura Czerniewicz 4 November 2012
  2. 2. Open scholarship, open all content A HOLISTIC VIEW
  3. 3. OPENING SCHOLARSHIP Open from the outset Open access shared & shareable, repositories for all Literature Reviews content Bibliographies Conceptual Frameworks Proposals Conceptualisation Notes Recorded interviews Lectures Translation Data sets Data Collection Presentations Images Open data Engagement Data Analysis Reports Audio recordsOpen education Interviews resourcesopen etextbooks Findings Books Massive open Conference papers Journal articles Technical papers online courses (MOOCs) Open journals and new publishing models
  4. 4. An institutional culture perspective CHANGE
  5. 5. INSTITUTIONAL CULTURAL TYPES Policy definition: Loose Collegium Bureaucracy Control of Control of implementation: implementation: Loose Tight Enterprise Corporation Policy definition: TightMcNay, I. (1995). From collegial academy to corporate enterprise: The changing cultures of universities.
  6. 6. INSTITUTIONAL CULTURAL TYPES Policy definition: Loose Collegium Bureaucracy Control of Control ofimplementation: implementation: Loose Tight Enterprise Corporation Policy definition: Tight
  7. 7. THE COLLEGIUM TYPE• Characterised by o loose institutional policy definition o informal networks and decision arenas o and innovation at the level of the individual or o department. (McNay 1995)• The organisational response o ’laissez faire’, few targeted policies or processes (Rossiter, 2007). o ore value of collegium is freedom• Defines organizational expectations in terms of freedom from external controls (Yee-Tak 2006)
  8. 8. UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN• Oldest South African university o Top ranked African university • QS World University Rankings • Times Higher Education World University Rankings • Academic Ranking of World Universities• Medium sized o +/- 25 000 students o 982 permanent academics (of 5 442 total staff)
  9. 9. PRESTIGIOUS RESEARCH UNIVERSITY • 5 Nobel Laureates • Booker Prize winner • Numerous internationally recognised research initiatives o Africa Earth Observatory Network (AEON o The Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, an international centre for research in the fields of cosmology and topology. o Department of Physics, home to the UCT- CERN research centre, o V involved in SKA (Square Kilometre Array)
  10. 10. TEACHING AT UCT• Residential • Funding subsidy for headcount & throughput• Face to face (not curriculum or content)• Almost no distance ed • Centre for Higher• Not set up for “non- Educational Development traditional” courses active, strong academic development
  11. 11. OPEN AGENDA AT UCT: PROJECTS Scholar Scholar Scholar Scholar Student Community2007 Opening Scholarship2008200920102011 Scholar20122013 Scholar2014
  12. 12. HTTP://OPENUCT.UCT.AC.ZA
  13. 13. OUR APPROACH TOTHE OPENNESS AGENDAin the light of UCT’s culture
  14. 14. PRINCIPLES & STRATEGIES• Individual agency/ control• Maximum flexibility• Network & community building• Enabling, not requiring• Advocacy Collegium culture:• Champions & incentives loose institutional policy definition• Researching practices informal networks and decision arenas and innovation at the level of the individual or department McNay 1995
  15. 15. HISTORICALLY• Opportunities for open agenda in the eLearning space rather than OA o Contributed to change strategy• No institutional repository
  16. 16. MULTIPLICITY• Multiple strategies• Many small sites of innovation and activity, aiming for agglomeration across the institution, to achieve critical mass• Change at all levels of the university• Develop networks and build community
  17. 17. ACADEMIC AGENCY• Decentralised uploading o Individual academics upload and maintain their resources directly• Pride of authorship o Quality assurance with the individual o Quality assurance part of broader teaching and learning systems, not separate• Minimal moderation o Copyright compliance
  18. 18. FLEXIBILITY• Granularisation of resources important• Whole courses• Single resources o Ebooks o Presentations o Podcasts o Lecture notes o Animations o Images
  19. 19. INSTITUTIONAL COMMUNITY• IP Law Unit• Knowledge Co-op• Citizen Science projects in COL• Enterprise Content Management Project• Eresearch• Library• Communications Office• Faculties
  20. 20. ENABLING FRAMEWORK• Work enabled by new UCT IP Policy o Specifically addresses issues relating to the creation of OER resources and the licensing processes to be followed o Expressly states the support for publication of materials under Creative Commons licenses
  21. 21. ADVOCACY
  22. 22. CHAMPIONS• At senior level o DVC signs Cape Town Declaration (2008) o VC signs Berlin Declaration (2011)
  23. 23. CHAMPIONS• Senior & middle level• OER Health Sciences - Dean
  24. 24. CHAMPIONS• Bringing the work of “early adopters” above the radar
  25. 25. CHAMPIONS & CHANGE• In our experience o Senior level support symbolic o Vertical relationships do not cause change per se, only when actual projects in place (eg HS) o Champions work best in horizontal networked relationships, building communities of practice• New roles and reconfigurations o The rise of the non-specialist “expert,” (or the “extended professional”)
  26. 26. ENABLERS: SMALL GRANTS • 35 small grants in 2011 & 2012 • Up to R10 000 each • All faculties • To create and/ or adapt OER • Includes course level & smaller resources
  27. 27. INCENTIVES: SMALL GRANTS
  28. 28. OPENCONTENT GRANTS 2011/12FacultiesHumanities 11Health Science 8 TypeEngineering & BE 7 New course material 11CHED 3 New video 8Law 2 Adapting resources 16Science 1Commerce 1Other 2 35
  29. 29. RESEARCH• Committed to researching practice o Cox, G (2012) Why would you do it, ... would a student actually be interested?” “Understanding the barriers and enablers to academic contribution to an OER directory”, OCW, Cambridge 2012 o Hodgkinson-Williams, C.A. & Paskevicius, M. (2012). The role of postgraduate students in co-authoring open educational resources to promote social inclusion: a case study at the University of Cape Town, Distance Education, 33 (2), 253-269.
  30. 30. How we are doingUCT OPENCONTENT
  31. 31. OPENCONTENT VISITS15 OCT 2011- 15 OCT 2012
  32. 32. OPENCONTENT LOCATION OF VISITS 15 OCT 2011- 15 OCT 2012
  33. 33. OPENCONTENT TRAFFIC & REFERRALS 15 OCT 2011- 15 OCT 2012
  34. 34. 0 50 100 200 250 15001-201001-201102-201002-201103-201003-201104-201005-201106-201006-201107-201007-201108-201008-201109-201009-201110-201010-201111-201012-201011-2011 1-201212-2011 GROWTH TO DATE 2-2012 3-2012 Resources added Growth of total content
  35. 35. FACULTY CONTRIBUTIONS Centre for Higher 11% Education Development 3% 24% Commerce Engineering and the Built Environment Health Sciences 8% Humanities34% 4% Law 16% Science
  36. 36. TYPES OF RESOURCES Video 10% Audio 28%Text/HTMLWebpages 20% Audio Downloadable Documents Graphics/Photos Other Text/HTML Webpages Other Video 3% Downloadable Graphics/ Documents Photos 38% 1%
  37. 37. CONCLUDING COMMENTS• A steady upswell rather than mainstream• Integration of resourcing requirements into existing structures• Acceptance of non-linear organic process• Slow approach more likely to be sustainable & effective• A research-based approach to inform strategy
  38. 38. REFERENCES• Czerniewicz, L and Brown, C (2009) study of the relationship between institutional policy, organisational culture and e- learning use in four South African universities in Computers & Education 53 (2009) 121–131• McNay, I (1995) From collegial academy to corporate enterprise: The changing cultures of universities. In T. Schuller (Ed.), The Changing University. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press• Rossiter, D (2007) Whither e-learning? Conceptions of change and innovation in higher education. Journal of Organisational Transformation and Social Change. 4 (1), pp.93–107• Yee-Tak , W (2006) Student Expectations in the New Millennium: An Explorative Study of Higher Education in Hong Kong, Dissertation, unpublished dissertation
  39. 39. Laura Czerniewicz Laura.Czerniewicz@uct.ac.za OpenUCT Initiative: http://openuct.uct.ac.za/ UCT OpenContent : http://opencontent.uct.ac.zaCompanion site on Vula: https://vula.uct.ac.za/portal/site/openuct Follow us: http://twitter.com/openuct Presentations: http://www.slideshare.net/laura_Cz For slides 32-34 thanks to Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 South Africa License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/za/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.

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