ETUG Spring Workshop 2014 - Getting the Mix Right: Implementing Open Education Practices


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Implementing open education practices is a multidimensional challenge for educators. In this session the presenters share data and findings from their research into the practical challenges of open education practices implementation in higher education. Using the analogy of mixing different audio tracks to produce a harmonious acoustic blend, they discuss the blend of elements that need to be considered and balanced in promoting open educational practices. The presentation is followed by small group discussions to further explore solutions to challenges raised.

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  • People working together – image of collaboration
    No easy definition – give an example of where we saw it happening
  • Open images to do with barriers – one closed and one open
  • Change all graphics and references from OER university to universitas
  • See if graphic can be enlarged
  • Add links to decision pages etc
  • Still need to follow institutional practices to achieve credit
  • ETUG Spring Workshop 2014 - Getting the Mix Right: Implementing Open Education Practices

    1. 1. Irwin DeVries TRU Open Learning David Porter BCcampus Getting the Mix Right: Implementing Open Education Practices Image licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 2.5 generic license
    2. 2. How are instructors implementing OER to support teaching and learning needs within British Columbia post-secondary institutions? How do we design and build open courses for use in massively open university programs
    3. 3. Ecology How do we move news, good or innovative ideas forward in the higher education ecosystem?
    4. 4. From “What” to “How” From the “what” to the “how” of openness” Open Educational Practices (OEP) “a set of activities and support around the creation, use and repurposing of Open Educational Resources” (Conole 2010) 4 4
    5. 5. Why Open? • Removing barriers from access to learning and credentials • Being able to implement sharing and use of educational resources • Moving toward open and collaborative processes Similar concepts to Free and Open Source Software 5
    6. 6. 6 What is the OERu?6 • Global partnership of like-minded postsecondary institutions – not university per se • Committed to free courses and programs based on OERs • Optional support, assessment and credible credentials through partner institutions • Sponsored by a not-for-profit foundation in New Zealand (OERu Foundation) • Virtual presence in WikiEducator wiki
    7. 7. 7 How does it work? “Parallel learning universe” (Taylor, 2007) 7 OERu logic high level. Wayne Mackintosh. Licensed under Creative Commons 3.0 BY-SA Unported.
    8. 8. 8 OERu collaborations8 Diagram showing high-level logic model for OERu. By Wayne Macintosh. Licensed under Creative Commons 3.0 BY-SA Unported.
    9. 9. 9
    10. 10. Open design process • Sample processes • Planning for OERu prototypes • Learning design consultation • Open planning • Design artifacts 10
    11. 11. ART100 prototype • TRU’s first contribution: ART100 Art Appreciation and Techniques • Redesigned from existing OER – Course from via WA State Board of Community Colleges Open Course Library – Modified/revised/remix ed content, activities, assessments, etc. 11
    12. 12. 12 Research design12 • Comparative case study – Scope: one course developed over a fixed period of time in OERu – Similar case study in OSS used for comparison: (von Krogh et al., 2003) – Highlight “relationships, contrasts and similarities – Extend learning from one case to the other (Khan & VanWynsberghe, 2008)
    13. 13. 13 OSS design and development • Based on collaboration and communities of volunteers – Commitment to philosophy of sharing – Personal and professional benefits – Induction processes for newbies – Communication and versioning systems – Decentralized but with some leadership – Visible design rules 13 Masque aux lépreux Bwa. Village de Boni. By Ji-Ell . Licensed under Creative Commons 3.0 BY-SA Unported.
    14. 14. 14 Sharing learning design knowledge “Traditionally design has been an implicit process, how do we shift to a process of design that is more explicit and hence shareable?” (Conole, 2008) Quietly listening to the wind in the pines, 1246. Ma Lin. Public Domain.
    15. 15. 15 Collaborative design in other fields 15 • Architecture, expert systems, telecommunications, engineering – Multiple points of negotiation and evaluation (Kvan, 2000) – Explicit sharing of design information using communication tools (Chiu, 2002) – Design teams need to explore and integrate differences (Sonnenwald, 1996) – Intentional communication processes are essential (Hixon, 2008)
    16. 16. 16 Aspect Open Design and Development Traditional Instructional Design Contributors Volunteers, motivated by open philosophy and personal /organizational benefit Paid faculty or staff Makeup of design team Distributed Centralized Induction into the development team No specific method Employment orientation and training Access to contribute Member community open to public including students downstream Private — but some possible input by students Roles of design team members Loosely defined, overlapping, broad skills Specialized, clearly defined Organizational structure Flat, collaborative, representational, some meritocratic Hierarchical or faculty based Communication F-F and virtual meetings, mailing lists, wiki pages, microblogs Mostly business communication tools (email, meetings) Intended uses As originally intended or repurposed for multiple uses and settings Defined purpose determined in learner, job, institutional or market analysis Traditional/Open design and development comparison
    17. 17. 17 Aspect Open Design and Development Traditional Instructional Design Content copyright Open licensing (CC) with some rights reserved Mostly rights reserved Content versions Multiple possible via forks Official version Design processes Informal design processes More formal design processes and documentation Authoring environment Open source social software Proprietary Delivery environment Wiki, LMS, other options Dedicated proprietary application Pedagogy Varied, depending on individual development teams and their preferences Generally in line with overarching institutional model Maintenance Ongoing, community based Episodic, managed Traditional/Open design and development comparison
    18. 18. Citizenship in an OER ecosystem • Design challenges with use of OER – File formats – LMS – Multiple versions – Schedules and timetables – Embedded cohort model – Copyright issues – Cultural biases 18 • Developing as OER – Maintain editable source files – Open environment – Transparent versions/forks – Maintain flexiblity – Design for choices – Go CC! – Consider cultural diversity
    19. 19. Community • Importance of developer community – Developer motivations (want to make a contribution) – A community of volunteers (attrition) – needs to grow – Division of labor - developer specializations (multiple roles) – Mentoring – Shared and standardized communication habits (essential for shared understanding of project) – Mediating artifacts 19 19 “When code [open curriculum] and community do not develop in parallel, the learning curve can be steep” (O’Mahoney, 2007)
    20. 20. Institutional cultures 20 Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: PICK 3 Assignments (Summative) 1 Interpret examples of visual art using a five-step critical process that includes description, analysis, context, meaning, and judgment. Also use Module 4 Assignment 3 (Saylor) 2 Identify and describe the elements and principles of art. Assignment "Worksheet 3" Module 3 (Saylor) - tweak it - 3 Use analytical skills to connect formal attributes of art with their meaning and expression. Assignment 5 0 Module 7 (Saylor) 4 Explain the role and effect of the visual arts in societies, history, and other world cultures. Assignment 1 (Saylor) Module 1 - 5 Articulate the political, social, cultural, and aesthetic themes and issues that artists examine in their work. Assignment 4, Module 5 (Saylor) 6 Identify the processes and materials involved in art and architectural production. Formative quiz in relevant modules 7 Utilize information to locate, evaluate, and communicate information about visual art in its various forms. Worksheet 6 - Module 6 (Saylor) and Discussion Question 12 from Module 8 (Saylor) and Worksheet 10, Module 10 (Saylor) End of course Final comprehensive assignment Build portfolio through course - integrate as final portfolio piece - Curatorial statements - Assignment 6, Module 10 (Saylor) Activities Module Goals Individual Group Define ‘art’ within a cultural perspective. Quizzes for each Module (Optional) Reflective questions Discussion questions Assignment example Institutional constraints – assessment and credit, curricular oversight - Need for new flexibility - Change management and advocacy - Policy - Culture
    21. 21. 21 Potential and promises • Collaboration towards open learning opportunities beyond traditional constraints • Develop global community of instructional design and development expertise using OER • See OER from viewpoints of creation and reuse • A new way of thinking and working together • Process stays grounded at grassroots level • Use OER projects as catalyst for institutional innovation
    22. 22. Join us! • Planning groups under way 22 Demonstration of Reification in Perception. S. Lahar. Public Domain.
    23. 23. David’s research Looking at open systemically
    24. 24. How it began Source: • 1996 - 2001 • Reusable content will revolutionize higher education • New pathways to learning for students can be created ...For most institutions, courses continue to be the standard units of instruction, the “one-size- fits-all” building blocks of academic credit, even within the virtual education arena
    25. 25. Research question 25 What is the lived experience of educators who are implementing OER to support teaching and learning needs within British Columbia post-secondary educational institutions?
    26. 26. Page | 2003-2012 $10 million invested 144 grants awarded 100% participation across system 83% partnerships 47 credentials developed in whole or part via OPDF 355 courses, 12 workshops, 19 web sites/tools and 396 course components (learning objects, labs, textbooks, manuals, videos) 100% open license for free and open sharing and reuse by all BC post-secondary institutions Online Program Development Fund (OPDF)
    27. 27. Review of literature • Open educational resources, open licenses and OER projects • Issues, criticisms, gaps in knowledge about OER use • Methodological challenges and potential approaches to research 29
    28. 28. Status of scholarship • Culture of sharing and collaboration • Quality assurance • Localization requirements 30 • Instructional design and development processes • Technologies and tools • Business models and policy structures
    29. 29. Culture of sharing and collaboration • Establishing “openness” as a virtue (Carey, 2011; D’Antoni & Savage, 2010) • The culture of the academy • Designing for reusability from the outset • Community and team building as a strategy 31 Question: Under what conditions could a group of developers at different institutions cooperate on the development of an OER?
    30. 30. Localization and community requirements • Adapting, refining or revising design processes to match the potential for OER reuse (Conole, 2010; Petrides, Nguyen, Karliani & Jimes, 2008; Wiley, 2006 • OER as a “supply-side” phenomenon • Implications for changing design practices • Articulation and transfer—program planning 32 Question: How do instructional developers, instructors and faculty approach the use and reuse of learning resources in their current practices and what are the implications for new practice afforded by openly licensed resources?
    31. 31. Technologies and tools • Technology and technological decisions as a governing force—function following form (Kehrwald, 2010; Feenberg, 2004; William & Edge, 1996; Smith & Marx, 1994) • Deterministic practices or democratic rationalization • What tools, practices and processes are actually needed? 33 Question: How do instructors, faculty and instructional developers use OER in institutional contexts where technology selection and deployment decisions may be beyond their influence? Do they have the right tools to promote adoption, adaptation, or creation of open resources?
    32. 32. Third generation activity theory 34
    33. 33. Answering the research questions 35 Academic culture * tenure and promotion practices * extension of collaborative practices Educational practices * OER as trigger for pedagogical discussions * collegial engagement and trust OER concepts and practices * training needs, library engagement * spirit of openness and collaborative practice Instructional design * labour-intensive, requiring new skills * moving from content to pedagogy in the discussion Institutional contexts * articulation and transfer concerns * clarity around copyright and open licensing Quality assurance * quality assurance rubrics and processes needed * twofold effect: build confidence and a community of practice for sustainability Professional support * multi-level marketing and training; discipline-based * better tools and process for OER use and remixing Funding support * the incentive approach works * catalytic effect when open textbooks were announced * sustainability is an issue Technology factors * rationalization vs. determinism * need for an experimental “sandbox”
    34. 34. Conclusions and recommendations • For OER to become mainstream in the British Columbia higher education sector • It will require promotion of OER concepts, attributes and value propositions at all levels: with administrators, department chairs, instructors and students within institutions, as well as with articulation committees on a system-wide basis • It will require intentional and targeted training programs for individuals and discipline- specific groups to move beyond a small cadre of early adopters associated with the OPDF • It will require better tools for search and storage, and support for communities of practice that are willing to evaluate and curate quality assured digital OER collections 36
    35. 35. 18 Write Once Publish Many