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problem

  1. 1. 1. Define the Problem <ul><li>Defining a problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the purpose of the study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the background issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. the company growth rate is low. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discuss with decision makers, interviews with industry experts, analysis of secondary data, conducting focus groups analysis. </li></ul>
  2. 2. 2. Developing an Approach to the Problem <ul><li>Formulating an analytical framework and models, research questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine a hypothesis: an educated guess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hypothesis provides a research problem for the investigators which can be tested scientifically. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 3. Formulating a Research Design <ul><li>A framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research </li></ul><ul><li>Details procedures needed to obtain the required information. </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting exploratory research, precisely defining the variables, designing appropriate scales to measure them. </li></ul><ul><li>How to obtain the data: survey or experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Design questionnarie </li></ul>
  4. 4. 4. Doing Field Work or Collecting Data <ul><li>Field work involves personal, telephone, mail, or electronic interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Proper selection, training, supervision, and evaluation of the field force are essential </li></ul>
  5. 5. 5. Preparing and Analyzing Data <ul><li>Data Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Editing, coding, transcribing of collected data. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze using different statistical techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreted the results, find conclusions related to the marketing research questions </li></ul><ul><li>6. Preparing and presenting the report. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>First, select sources of information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information already collected for another purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If use secondary data—designing the questionnaire, planning the sample, and collecting data are done for you. But make sure they are done right! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information collected for the specific purpose at hand </li></ul></ul></ul>Source of information
  7. 7. <ul><li>Sources of secondary data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>internal sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>balance sheets, sales figures, customer DB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>government publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>statistics Canada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>periodicals and books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian trade index, Advertising age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commercial data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A.C. Nielsen, IRI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internet </li></ul></ul>Source of information
  8. 8. <ul><li>Advantages of secondary data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less effort expended process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less time consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some information can be obtained only from secondary data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of secondary data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collected for some other purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may not be very accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be outdated </li></ul></ul>Pros and Cons of Secondary Data
  9. 9. <ul><li>Primary data collection process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>surveys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>qualitative research—personal interviews & focus groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design study materials (e.g., questionnaire design) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul></ul>Primary Data
  10. 10. <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection by asking people questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>personal interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>telephone survey </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mail survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large size data, flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>errors in questionnaire, expensive, response error </li></ul></ul></ul>Survey
  11. 11. <ul><li>Survey (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flexible, more information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expensive, time-consuming, interviewer bias </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., “shopping mall intercept”: a convenient, low-cost method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but lacks representativeness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Personal Interview
  12. 12. <ul><li>Survey (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>quickness, cost efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>limited amount of information, limited accessibility of people, have to remember response options </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Telephone Survey
  13. 13. <ul><li>Survey (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low cost </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low response rate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Mail Survey
  14. 14. <ul><li>Survey (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low cost—much lower even than mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low response rate—large response bias </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data reliability—difficult to verify if personal information is true </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Internet Survey
  15. 15. <ul><li>Qualitative research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual depth interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focus group interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resulting data have more depth and richness of context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>results not necessarily representative of population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to quantify the results </li></ul></ul></ul>Qualitative Research
  16. 16. <ul><li>Qualitative research (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus group interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loosely structured group discussion led by interviewer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The discussion is observed or videotaped </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best for preliminary research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual depth interview: similar interview with a single person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to understand without seeing it, so we have a video. </li></ul></ul></ul>Focus Group Interview
  17. 17. <ul><li>Observational method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>personal observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mechanical observation (e.g., scanner data) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can have high degree of accuracy, short period of time for data collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unaware of motives, attitudes, or decision processes </li></ul></ul></ul>Obervational Method
  18. 18. <ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests the effects of variables in a controlled situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: test of two different versions of advertisements in two different cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unrealistic settings (laboratory experiments) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive (real experiments) </li></ul></ul></ul>Experiment
  19. 19. <ul><li>Questionnaire design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simple, direct, unbiased—no leading questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>written with respondents in mind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>first question should create interest if possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>difficult or personal questions should be asked last </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>open-ended questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closed-end questions </li></ul></ul></ul>Questionnaire
  20. 20. <ul><li>Open- vs. close-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>(asked of Americans) “What do you think is the most important problem facing this country today?” </li></ul><ul><li>1) the energy shortage 2) quality of public schools </li></ul><ul><li>3) economy 4) war on terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>--- 70% endorsed “war on terrorism” </li></ul>Questionnaire <ul><li>Same question in open-ended format </li></ul><ul><li>How can we get out of Iraq? </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Survey and questionnaire design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing a sample: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Samples need to be as representative as possible, ideally randomly chosen from the population of interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sample size must be large enough to have confidence in the results—depends on situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly chosen samples lead to biased results </li></ul></ul></ul>Sample selection
  22. 22. Reported daily TV consumption in hours Low frequency alternatives Up to ½ ½ to 1 1 to 1½ 1½ to 2 2 to 2½ More than 2½ High Frequency alternatives Up to 2½ 2½ to 3 3 to 3½ 3½ to 4 4 to 4½ More than 4½ Schwarz et al. (1985)
  23. 23. Reported daily TV consumption in hours Low frequency alternatives % Up to ½ 7.4 ½ to 1 17.7 1 to 1½ 26.5 1½ to 2 14.7 2 to 2½ 17.7 More than 2½ 16.2 High Frequency alternatives % Up to 2½ 62.5 2½ to 3 23.4 3 to 3½ 7.8 3½ to 4 4.7 4 to 4½ 1.6 More than 4½ 0 Schwarz et al. (1985)
  24. 24. <ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sample is a subset of the population selected to represent the population as a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samples should be representative of the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>larger sample gives more reliable results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>small samples are OK when they represent the population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(US presidential election poll: sample size of 1,000) </li></ul></ul></ul>Sample
  25. 25. <ul><li>Sampling (cont.): Sampling procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>random sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>every member of the population has a known probability of being included </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>convenience sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the researcher selects easiest population members from which to obtain information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lacks the representativeness of the population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g.) shopping mall intercept </li></ul></ul></ul>Sampling
  26. 26. Summary <ul><li>What is marketing research? </li></ul><ul><li>The marketing research process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six stages </li></ul></ul>

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