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Lecture 2 introduction to bioprocess


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Lecture 2 introduction to bioprocess

  1. 1. Introduction to Bioprocess<br />12th. July 2010<br />CEPP, UTM Skudai, Johor<br />Prof. Dr. Hesham A. El Enshasy<br />Faculty of Chemical Engineering<br />CEPP, UTM, Skudai, Malaysia <br />
  2. 2. The oldest Known Biotech. Protocol for Yeast production <br />Bread and Beer Manufacturing Process, the 5th. Dynastry (ca 2400 BC) Leiden Egyptian Museum, Holland<br />
  3. 3. Milestones of Bioprocess Industry Development <br />
  4. 4. Solvents <br />Organic acids <br />Pre 1940s<br />Baker’s yeast <br />Amino acids <br />Antibiotics <br />Enzymes<br />Probiotics <br />Industrial Bioprocessing<br />Vaccine<br />biopolymers<br />Pre 1980s<br />Biosurfactants<br />SCP<br />rProteins <br />MAb<br />Biopharmaceuticals <br />Post 1980s<br />Plant Bioactive<br />compounds <br />BioDiesel <br />X<br />
  5. 5. Some of Major Industrial Fermentation Products <br />Ref. Bioprocessing-from Biotechnology to Biorefinery (S.T. Yang, Ed.), Elsevier Press, 2007. <br />
  6. 6. Stages of Industrial Biotechnology from 1900 to date<br />
  7. 7. Industrial Bioprocessing: Microbial cells<br />Bioprocess Development<br />
  8. 8. Determination of process bottleneck(s)<br />Bioprocess Optimization in Lab. scale<br />(Development of cultivation strategy to reach the maximal productivity)<br />Scaling up of the Process<br />Down Stream <br />(Separation/Isolation/Purification and increase of product Stability)<br />
  9. 9. Substrate Input and Output<br />Oxygen<br />Carbon dioxide <br />Carbon and Energy <br />Sources <br />Biomass<br />CELL<br />Metabolite(s)<br />Nitrogen Source<br />Water <br />Other requirements<br />(P, S,Na,K,Mg,etc…)<br />Heat<br />
  10. 10. General Requirements for Medium Composition<br />It will Produce the maximal yield of product(s) or biomass per gram of substrate used<br />(High Yield Coefficient) <br />It will produce the maximal concentration of product or biomass<br />(High volumetric production) <br />It will permit the maximal yield of product formation <br />(Maximal productivity)<br />There will be the minimal yield of undesirable products<br />It will be of consistent quality and be readily available throughout the year<br />It will cause minimal problems during media preparation and sterilization <br />It will cause minimal problems in other aspects of the production process particularly<br />Aeration and agitation, extraction and waste treatment <br />
  11. 11. Cultivation Media<br />
  12. 12. Overviews on the elemental composition of the microorganisms<br />
  13. 13. From Petri-dish to Bioreactor<br />Primary Scaling up<br />
  14. 14. What can we use Petri dish for<br />Strain Isolation and Identification work<br />As first step for inoculum propagation <br />Sterility testing<br />Rapid screening for certain microbial metabolites <br />Antimicrobial sensitivity testing<br />Short term strain preservation<br />
  15. 15. What can we use Shake flask for<br />Primary production of certain metabolites <br />Genetic material preparation (cell mass production for DNA isolation)<br />Medium optimization (C-, N-, P- and elements-sources and concentrations) <br />Cultivation conditions optimization (Temperature, pH)<br />Primary understanding of oxygen and mixing requirements through the change in <br />(Shaking intensity, Shaking eccentricity, working volume and polymer addition)<br />Primary data for Growth and product formation kinetics <br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Bio-Factories in Industrial Biotechnology<br />Mammalian cells<br />Insect cells<br />Invertebrate cells<br />Plant cell<br />Algae<br />Fungi<br />Actinomycetes<br />Bacteria<br />
  18. 18. Plant: the oldest Natural source of metabolites <br />
  19. 19. New Process for Plant Metabolites Production<br />
  20. 20. Why Plant Cell Bioreactor ? <br />It is independent of geographical and seasonal variations and various environmental factors. <br />It offers a defined production system, which ensure continuous supply of products, uniform quality and yield<br />It is possible to produce novel compounds that are not normally found in parent plant. <br />It is independent of political interface<br />Efficient downstream recovery with low cost and minimum number of steps.<br />High efficient production rate with significant short production time<br />Fully Compliance to cGMP requirements for Biopharmaceuticals <br />
  21. 21. PhotoBioreactor<br />- Plant cells<br />- Algal cells<br />
  22. 22. Mammalian cells<br />Tissue Engineering<br />Cell Culture<br />
  23. 23. Different levels for mammalian cells / insect cells cultivation<br />Scaling up<br />
  24. 24. Different levels of cells cultivation<br />Small scale (T-flask, 24 well)<br />Non-Optimized<br />Cell Productivity<br />Shear Stress<br />Spinner flask<br />Rolling bottles<br />Semi-Optimized<br />Mixing<br />Bioreactor Level<br />(STR, Air-Lift, Hollow fiber)<br />Fully-Optimized<br />
  25. 25. BioFuel: The source of clean energy<br />
  26. 26. Bioreactor: The heart of Industrial Bioprocessing Facility<br />Since mid-1950s no major<br />Change in STR Engineering<br />Change mainly in:<br /><ul><li> Sampling system
  27. 27. Valves
  28. 28. Material Finish
  29. 29. Sensors </li></ul>(on-line, in-line and off-line)<br /><ul><li> Control system</li></li></ul><li>Exhaust gas<br />Analyzer<br />Feed pump(s)<br />pH<br />Temperature<br />DO<br />Aeration<br />Pressure<br />Power consumption<br />Weight / volume<br />Stirrer Speed<br />Measurement and open or closed loop control<br />Measurement only<br />Common measurement and control of bioreactors as <br />generally accepted as routine equipment<br />
  30. 30. Bioprocess control<br />All software and control/recording system must be cGMP approved and validated<br />
  31. 31. Manufacturing Cost in Bioprocess Industries <br />
  32. 32. BioFuture of Industrial Bioprocess<br />
  33. 33. Thank You<br />