Europe First Lesson


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Europe First Lesson

  1. 1. Europe Beginnings of Western Civilization
  2. 2. 48 Countries
  3. 3. <ul><li>Albania Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia and Montenegro Slovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Aegean Civilization
  5. 5. Chief Cultures <ul><li>Minoans – Island of Crete </li></ul><ul><li>Mycenaeans – Greek mainland </li></ul><ul><li>Trojans – Asia Minor or Turkey </li></ul>
  6. 7. Minoan Civilization <ul><li>Ended 1400 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Produced clay vases, bronze daggers, cups of gold and wall paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Traded with Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Mycenaeans were a warlike people who likely destroyed them . </li></ul>
  7. 8. Mycenaeans <ul><li>On the Greek mainland </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks of the Trojan War in Homer’s epics of the Iliad and the Odyssey. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrived in Greece in 1900 BC and adopted the Minoan culture </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded by the Dorians 1100 to 800 BC </li></ul>
  8. 9. Trojan War <ul><li>1200 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Mycenaeans destroyed the city of Troy after a 10 year siege. </li></ul><ul><li>They left a wooden horse – Trojan Horse </li></ul>
  9. 10. Homer <ul><li>Singing Poet </li></ul><ul><li>700 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Iliad – War of the Greeks against Troy </li></ul><ul><li>Odyssey – Adventures of a brave Greek Warrior on his 10 year journey after the war with Troy. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Greek Religion <ul><li>The Olympian Gods – Homer wrote about them. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with powers of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Zeus was the chief god – thunder and lightning </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo – Connection with the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Poseidon – Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Artemis - Moon </li></ul>
  11. 12. Heroes <ul><li>They were different than the gods </li></ul><ul><li>They could die </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles – invincible Greek warrior </li></ul>
  12. 13. Greek down fall <ul><li>Greek religion offered no standard of morality or incentives for just living </li></ul><ul><li>“How far, indeed, did the Olympian or “Homeric” deities of the Acropolis – those gods to whom magnificent temples were dedicated in every Greek city – offer true freedom of spirit of the Greek citizen?” </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Those temples, and the gods’ images that stood within, were symbols of civic pride , and often of civic arrogance ; these were “official” gods, but they did not speak to private conscience, or nourish the human longing for immortality, or clearly declare a norm for what men and women ought to be. </li></ul>
  14. 15. City- States <ul><li>Grew from the worship of Ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Acropolis – “polis” – city which was on a hilltop. Seat of government and of religion </li></ul><ul><li>150 city – states </li></ul><ul><li>Start of the Olympics to honor the god Zeus 776 B.C. was the first year of the Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>Olympics were suspended in A.D. 394 but revived in 1896 </li></ul>
  15. 16. Acropolis
  16. 17. Politics of Ancient Greece <ul><li>Monarchy – rule by one </li></ul><ul><li>Council of the Elders and the Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocracy – rule by the best </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocrats were of noble birth and had an important religious role. They were better than the average citizen they thought. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Oligarchy – rule by the few (rich) </li></ul><ul><li>Tyranny – rule by one man who has seized power by rebellion and insurrection. </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy – rule by the many or the common people. Only citizens could participate in government. (Women, slaves and men born outside the city-state were not citizens) </li></ul>
  18. 19. Spartan Military State <ul><li>Three classes of people – Ruling class, middle class and the slaves (helots) </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded by conquering </li></ul><ul><li>Education was only physical training </li></ul><ul><li>Chief duty was that of a soldier </li></ul>
  19. 20. Athenian Democracy <ul><li>Last monarch 1050 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Chose “Archon” to be chief </li></ul><ul><li>Solon’s Laws 594 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Repealed harsh laws </li></ul><ul><li>Relieved debtors </li></ul><ul><li>Redeemed slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Forbade parents to sell their children </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Ordered every father to teach his son a trade </li></ul><ul><li>Required sons to support their aged father </li></ul><ul><li>Every native born had the right to vote </li></ul>
  21. 22. Pericles <ul><li>461 to 429 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Democracy – citizens made the big decisions of government </li></ul><ul><li>All citizens could assemble in one place, speak and listen to speeches and then make the decisions </li></ul><ul><li>“Golden Age of Greece” </li></ul>
  22. 23. Alexander the Great
  23. 24. <ul><li>Finished what his father Philip II started in conquering the Persian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil of Aristotle – learned Homer’s Iliad </li></ul><ul><li>Thought himself as the new Achilles </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced Greek culture to the world </li></ul><ul><li>Died 33 years of age – fever or poison after returning from India </li></ul><ul><li>Empire divided among 4 generals </li></ul>
  24. 25. Greek Culture <ul><li>700 BC to 338 BC when conquered by the Macedonians </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy – “Man is the measure of all things” </li></ul><ul><li>Education – high regard to learning , began at 7 years of age </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Sculpture – 5 th century able to imitate the human form </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture – Temples in Athens, most famous is the Parthenon. It was dedicated to Athena, goddes of Athens. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Greek writers – Aesop – freed slave </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote fables – brief story used to teach a moral. </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocrates – Father of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Disease resulted from rationally explainable causes. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Hippocratic Oath <ul><li>The regimen I adopt shall be for the benefit of my patients according to my ability and judgment, and not for their hurt or for any wrong. I will give no deadly drug to any, though it be asked of me, nor will I counsel such, and especially I will not aid a woman to procure abortion . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Whatsoever house I enter, there will I go for the benefit of the sick, refraining from all wrongdoing or corruption, and especially from any act of seduction, or male or female, of bond or free. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Philosophy <ul><li>Socrates 470-399 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Search for Absolutes (Ultimate foundational truths) </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is the best way to live?” </li></ul><ul><li>He was poisoned for denying the existence of the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired Plato who attempted to find an explanation for the obvious order, design,and purpose in the universe </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Aristotle – 384 -322 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Student of Plato </li></ul><ul><li>Concluded that the order of the universe must have come from God </li></ul><ul><li>Tutor of Alexander the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic – </li></ul><ul><li>Stoicism – live according to reason, obey the law of nature, seek to do lasting good, honor all men as brothers and remain indifferent to the pleasures and pains of life. </li></ul>