Early Greeks and the Rise of City-States and GovernmentGeography - Southern part of Balkan Peninsula -Long uneven coastline -People are fishers, sailors, tradersMountains -Kept villages apart (isolation) -invaders enter from NorthInstead of large kingdom/Empire separate City-Statesarose.*Greece creates COLONIES to make needed food andgoods.
Minoans (1st Greeks on Crete) -Named after King Minos -Palace in city of Knossos. Had running water. -Walls covered in Frescoes paintings made on wet plaster walls. Carvings in bronze, gold, ivory, silver, stone. -Sailors and Traders. Poor soil on Crete Trade for food. -1620BCE Volcano causes tidal waves and weakens Minoans. -Wrote in Linear B. Bull jumping as religious ritual.Mycenaeans – controlled mainland Greece from 1600-1200BCE -warlike people grouped together into clans/tribes.* Tribe (headed by chief) clan (headed by warrior) family -carried out raids -Fort like cities in Peloponnesus (hand shaped) - Adopt Linear B from Minoans to record info - 1200BCE earthquakes/warfare destroyed most of Mycenaean cities.
City-States of Greece Polis = fort, city, and lands and smallfarming villages that surrounded the city and supplied food -Polis represented the center of Greek identity and itsinhabitants were intensely loyal to the Polis. Fight and Die for itCity-States – small area and people. Most <10,000 people -Most people were slaves and non-citizens -Free adult males had citizenship rights - Fort build on Acropolis – atop of the hill - Agora – marketplace and public speaking place - Each had gov’t, laws, calendar, money, weights and measures - Shared Greek Language, Religious ideas, festivalsGovernment – landowners who had money to pay for armies and weapons gained power.Aristocrats – “Best Men” became the Noble ClassAristocracy – “Ruled by the Best” take control from chiefs and control Greek society
- 600 BCE wealthy non-aristocrats could afford the weaponstoo. - Hoplites – non-aristocratic soldiers -carried long spears and fought in tight rows PHALANX - very important for defense demand more say in Gov’t - poor citizens and farmers also wanted a better lifeTyrants were people who took power illegally and has support of people - In some cases powerful rulers became unjust. “Tyrant”became known as ruling brutally and with absolute power. - Some city-states overthrew their tyrant. The idea of Popular Government took hold. People could rulethemselves.Athens democracy - people take part in Gov’t. However,still only a small percentage of the people could participate. Nowomen or slaves could participate.
Greek Culture and the Homeric AgeHomer – Blind poet. 700bce. He wrote two Epics Iliad and the OdysseyIliad – Trojan War / Trojan horse. (Helen, Achilles, Agamemnon,etc.)Odyssey – Mycenaean King Odysseus is on the way home fromwar to see his wife Penelope - Penelope tries to hold out for her husband despite suitors wanting to marry her (KING) - Adventures and interferences from the gods Shipwrecks Poseidon One-eyed Giant Cyclops Sea-monsters Trip to the underworld Hades Temptations by Circe and sea nymphsOdysseus gets home, kills suitors and is reunited with Penelope
Religion – Polytheism. No emphasis on morality Religion Looks to explain: 1- nature (seasons Persephone - pomegranate) 2 – human emotions, lose of self control 3 – bring benefits luck, harvest, children, longlife…Afterlife souls go to underworld HadesTo explain things (“unexplainable”) Greeks used MYTHSGods lived on Mt. Olympus. Interfered in humans lives.Zeus – Father Aphrodite – LoveHera – Queen Hades – underworldAthena – war, wisdom Poseidon – waterArtemis – hunting, moon Ares – warApollo – light, poetry, music Hermes – MessengerDemeter – harvestOracles – the way in which gods speak to humans travel to getmessages or predictions from priests.
Olympic Games – to honor Zeus -Winner received wreaths made of olive leaves. -No runner up prizes. Daily Life in AthensEconomy – trade Imports – goods brought in Exports – goods sent outTerracing – cutting flat layers into the hills to farm. (Olives,grapes, figs.)Young boys were taught grammar, music, athletics, gov’t, math,ethics, rhetoric (public speaking)Age 18 – year of military training - Young men who could afford weapons became Hoplites for ayr. - Poor soldiers served in the Flanks or rowmen on boats