AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:1. Outline the motivation process.2. Describe Maslow’s need hierarchy.3. Contrast Theory X and Theory Y.4. Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors.5. List the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job.6. Summarize the types of goals that increase performance.
AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:7. State the impact of underrewarding employees.8. Clarify key relationships in expectancy theory.9. Explain how the contemporary theories of motivation complement each other.
Defining MotivationKey Elements1. Intensity: how hard a person tries2. Direction: toward beneficial goal3. Persistence: how long a person tries
Factors characterizing events onthe job that led to extreme jobdissatisfaction Comparison of Satisfier and Dissatisfiers Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction EXHIBIT 6-3
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and DissatisfactionPresence Absence EXHIBIT 6-4
ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time.Core Needs If a higher-level needExistence: provision of cannot be fulfilled, thebasic material desire to satisfy a lower-requirements. level need increases.Relatedness: desire forrelationships.Growth: desire forpersonal development.
David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nPow nAch nAff
Equity Theory (cont’d)Choices for dealing with inequity:1. Change inputs (slack off)2. Change outcomes (increase output)3. Distort/change perceptions of self4. Distort/change perceptions of others5. Choose a different referent person6. Leave the field (quit the job)
Equity Theory (cont’d)Propositions relating to inequitable pay:1. Overrewarded employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees.2. Overrewarded employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work.3. Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work.4. Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees
FOR BETTER 1ndONEsiaSang Merah Putih akhirnya berkibar di Puncak Everest(8.848 mdpl) setelah Tim Ekspedisi Tujuh Puncak Dunia(Seven Summits) yang melalui jalur utara yaitu Tibet berhasilmencapai puncak, Sabtu (19/5/2012).