Power & politics in organizations

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  • Material pertinent to this illustration is found on pages 275-277.
  • Power & politics in organizations

    1. 1. Power & Politics Muhammad Faizan – 10384 IQRA UNIVERSITY
    2. 2. What is power? <ul><li>Power is the ability to … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get someone to do something you want done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make things happen in the way you want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Power is the opportunity to build, to create, to nudge history in a different direction.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Nixon </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Sources of Power in Organizations Legitimate Power Reward Power Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power Power over Others
    4. 4. Consequences of Power Reward Power Legitimate Power Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power Sources of Power Consequences of Power Commitment Resistance Compliance
    5. 5. Managers Acquire the power needed for leadership by working towards <ul><ul><li>Power-oriented behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position power and personal power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2–C’s : Centrality and Criticality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility of their job performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding contacts with senior people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking opportunities to increase name recognition. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Empowerment <ul><ul><li>The process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Empowerment, and the way managers empower others: <ul><li>Power as an expanding pie. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With empowerment, employees must be trained to expand their power and their new influence potential. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment changes the dynamics between supervisors and subordinates. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Evolution of Power: From Domination to Delegation None High Degree of Empowerment Domination Consultation Participation Delegation Influence Sharing Manager/leader consults followers when making decisions Power Sharing Manager/leader and followers jointly make decisions Power Distribution Followers are granted authority to make decisions Authoritarian Power Manager/leader impose decisions
    9. 9. Sexual Harassment and Power <ul><li>Harasser stereotypes the victim as subservient and powerless </li></ul><ul><li>Harasser threatens job security or safety through coercive or legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile work environment harassment continues when the victim lacks power to stop the behaviour </li></ul>
    10. 10. Office Romance and Power <ul><li>Co-workers believe that employees in relationships abuse their power to favour each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk of sexual harassment when relationship breaks off. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Organizational Politics <ul><li>Organizational Politics intentional enhancement of self-interest </li></ul>
    12. 12. Organizational Politics <ul><li>“ Organizational politics involves those activities by organizations to acquire, develop, and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty or dissent about choices.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Pfeffer, 1981) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Factors Influencing Political Behaviour Political behaviour Low High Favourable outcomes • Rewards • Averted punishments
    14. 14. Political Tactics <ul><li>Attacking or blaming others. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a favorable image. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a base of support. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspirational appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul>
    15. 15. How do organizational politics affect managers and management? <ul><li>Political action in the chief executive suite. </li></ul><ul><li>Political action and subunit power. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers placing themselves in the positions of other persons involved in critical decisions or events. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Can the firm use politics strategically? <ul><li>Organizational governance & its implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pattern of authority, influence, and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significantly determined by the effective control of key resources by members of a dominant coalition. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Can the firm use politics strategically? <ul><li>A person’s behavior must satisfy the following criteria to be ethical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The behavior must produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The behavior must respect the rights of all affected parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The behavior must respect the rules of justice. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Limiting the Effects of Political Behavior <ul><li>Open communication </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Sufficient Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce Clear Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Free Flowing Information </li></ul><ul><li>Measure performance, not personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Remove Political Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Hire Low-Politics Employees </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Opportunities for Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Pressure Against Politics </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Bottom Line: Managing Organizational Politics Effectively Learn the Culture and the “ Rules of the Game” for Success in the Organization Establish Cred- ibility and an Overall Positive Impression in the Eyes of Others in the Organization Build a Base of Support by Networking, Forming Alliances, etc., with Key Players Create and Implement Formal and Clear Policies, Procedures, etc., to Reduce Ambiguity Be Open and Visible with Employees When Dealing with Key Issues that Affect Them Act in Ways Consistent with What is Verbally Communicated to Employees (Walk the Talk) Use Defensive Behaviors as Protection Against Dirty Political Players in the Organization
    20. 20. 2P’s - Power & politics <ul><ul><li>To direct and control behavior of organizational members to achieve organizational goals </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Thank you

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