O.b. c 7 motivation concepts


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O.b. c 7 motivation concepts

  1. 1. O.B. CHAPTER 7 MOTIVATION CONCEPTS Dr.Rajesh Kamath Assistant Professor Department of Public Health Manipal University
  2. 2. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • MOTIVATION : The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. • 1. Intensity describes how hard a person tries. Needs to be in the right direction. • 2. Direction needs to be right. • 3. Persistence measures how long a person can maintain effort.
  3. 3. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION : • 4 theories, now questionable in terms of validity, but as managers you need to know them for 2 reasons : • 1. They are the foundation from which contemporary theories have grown. • 2. Practicing managers still regularly use them and their terminology in explaining employee motivation. • 1. ABRAHAM MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY • 2. THEORY X AND THEORY Y • 3. TWO FACTOR THEORY • 4. McCLELLAND’S THEORY OF NEEDS
  4. 4. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 1. ABRAHAM MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY • The best known theory • Hierarchy of 5 needs: • 1.Physiological : Hunger, thirst, shelter, sex. • 2.Safety : Physical and emotional safety. • 3.Social : Affection, belongingness, acceptance, friendship • 4.Esteem : • Internal factors – Self respect, autonomy, achievement External factors – Status, recognition, attention • 5.Self-actualisation : Drive to become what we are capable of becoming. Includes growth, achieving our potential, and self fulfillment. • The first 2 are LOWER ORDER NEEDS. The next 3 are higher order needs. • Lower order needs predominantly satisfied externally(pay, contracts, tenure) • Higher order needs satisfied internally (within the person)
  6. 6. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • A substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. • Thus as each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next one becomes dominant. • So as managers, if you need to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying the needs at or above that level. • Research does not validate the theory. • But old theories die hard.
  7. 7. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 2. Theory X and Theory Y – Douglas McGregor concluded that managers tend to mould their behavior towards employees according to certain assumptions. • Under Theory X, managers believe that employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or coerced into performing it. • Under Theory Y, managers believe employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek responsibility. • Unfortunately, there is no evidence.
  8. 8. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 3. Two-Factor theory ( Motivation-hygiene theory ) – Frederick Herzberg. • He asked - “What do people want from their jobs?”. • He asked people to describe, in detail, situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs. • Respondents who felt good about their work tended to attribute it to INTRINSIC FACTORS (advancement, recognition, responsibility, achievement) which they attributed to themselves. • Dissatisfied respondents tended to cite EXTRINSIC FACTORS ( HYGIENE FACTORS ), such as supervision, pay, company policies, working conditions.
  9. 9. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • So, Herzburg said - The opposite of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction”, and the opposite of “dissatisfaction” is “no dissatisaction”. • Managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily motivation. • Not well supported in literature. • As managers, “If you want to build a ship, make the men yearn for the sea”
  10. 10. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 4. McClelland’s Theory of Needs : A theory that states that there are 3 important needs that help explain motivation : • Need for Achievement is the drive to excel • Need for Power is the need to make others behave in a manner in which they would not have behaved otherwise. • Need for Affiliation is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. • Illustration: You have a ball and 5 targets. Each target is farther away than the last. • Target A is a cinch. Rs.20 • Target B – 80% chance – Rs.40 • Target C – 50% chance – Rs.80 • Target D – 20% chance – Rs.160 • Target E – 1% chance - Rs.320 • Which one would you go for?
  11. 11. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • High achievers perform best when they perceive their probability of success as 50%. • They dislike high odds...WHY? • Because they get no achievement satisfaction from success that comes from pure chance. • They dislike low odds...WHY? • Because then there is no challenge to their skills.
  12. 12. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION : • 1. Self-determination theory. • 2. Cognitive evaluation theory. • 3. Self concordance theory. • 4. Goal setting theory. • 5. Self-efficacy theory • 6. Reinforcement theory. • 7. Equity theory. • 8. Expectancy theory.
  13. 13. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 1. Self-determination theory. • A theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation. • Eg: Maria worked 15 hours a week at the Humane society as a volunteer without pay for 3 months. Then she was hired full time for rs.50 an hour. But she is not finding it to be as much fun as earlier. Why? • People prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation.
  14. 14. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 2. Cognitive evaluation theory. • A version of self - determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behaviour that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling. • Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic interest in a task. When people are paid for work, it feels less like something they want to do and more like something they have to do. • As managers, we should understand that people are driven by a need for autonomy, and seek ways to achieve competence.
  15. 15. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 3. Self concordance theory. • The degree to which peoples’ reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values. • If individuals pursue goals because of an intrinsic interest, they are more likely to attain their goals and are happy even if they do not. WHY? • Because the process of striving towards them is fun. • In contrast, people who pursue goals for extrinsic reasons(money, status or other benefits) are less likely to attain their goals and less happy even when they do achieve them. WHY? • Because the goals are less meaningful to them. • So, choose your job for reasons other than extrinsic rewards. • As managers, provide intrinsic as well as extrinsic incentives.
  16. 16. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 4. Goal setting theory – Specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. • Strong supportive research findings. • Eg: 1. You are told to do your best. • 2. You are specifically told to score more than 75 % on all your papers. • When will you do better? • Specific goals increase performance. • Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals. • Feedback leads to higher performance than does non feedback.
  17. 17. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • Difficult : • Challenging goals get our attention and thus tend to help us focus. • Difficult goals energise us because we have to work harder to attain them. • Do you study as hard for an easy exam as you do for a difficult one? • When goals are difficult, people persist in trying to attain them. • Difficult goals help us to discover strategies that help us to perform the job or task more effectively • Feedback : • All feedback is not equally potent – Self generated feedback, with which employees are able to monitor their own progress – has been shown to be a more powerful motivator than externally generated feedback.
  18. 18. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • Management By Objectives (MBO) has 4 key ingredients : • 1. Goal specificity. • 2. Participation in the setting of goals or objectives. • 3. Explicit time period. • 4. Performance feedback. • The only area of possible disagreement between MBO and goal setting theory is participation : MBO strongly advocates it while goal setting theory says managers assigning goals is usually just as effective.
  19. 19. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • The organisation’s overall objectives are translated into specific objectives for each succeeding level in the organisation (divisional, departmental , individual).
  20. 20. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 5. Self-efficacy theory • Self efficacy : An individual’s belief that she or he is capable of performing a task. • The higher your self efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed. • So, in difficult situations, people with low self efficacy are more likely to lessen their effort or give up all together, while those with high self efficacy will try harder to master the challenge.
  22. 22. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • Albert Bandura, who developed the self efficacy theory, proposed 4 ways self efficacy can be increased. • 1. Enactive mastery • 2. Vicarious modeling • 3. Verbal persuasion • 4. Arousal
  23. 23. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 1. Enactive mastery – most important way – gaining relevant experience with the task or job. • Training programs often make use of enactive mastery by having people practice and build their skills. Training increases self efficacy. • 2. Vicarious modeling – becoming more confident when you see someone like yourself doing the task. • 3. Verbal persuasion – when someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful. • The Pygmalion effect is a form of self fulfilling prophecy in which believing something can make it come true. Eg. In some studies, teachers were told that their students had very I.Q. scores when in fact they spanned a range – some high, some low, some in between. Consistent with the Pygmalion effect, the teachers spent more time with the students they thought were smart, gave them more challenging assignments, and expected more of them –all of which led to higher student self efficacy and better student grades. • The Galatea effect occurs when high performance expectations are communicated directly to an employee. Eg.: Sailors who were told convincingly that they would not get seasick in fact were much less likely to do so. • 4. Arousal – When the person gets “psyched up”. But if the task requires a steady, lower key perspective(eg.manuscript editing), arousal may hurt performance.
  24. 24. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 6. Reinforcement theory says that behaviour is a function of its consequences. • People learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want. Goal setting theory Reinforcement theory 1. Cognitive approach – An individual’s purposes direct her action. 1. Behaviouristic approach – reinforcement conditions behaviour. 2. Internal cognitive events are the cause. 2. Environmentally caused.
  25. 25. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • B.F.Skinner – Behaviorism: Behaviour follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner. • Creating pleasing consequences to follow specific forms of behaviour would increase the frequency of that behaviour. • Rewards are most effective if they follow the desired response. • Behaviour that is not rewarded, or is punished, is less likely to be repeated.
  26. 26. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • Social learning theory : The view that we can learn through both observation and direct experience. • 4 processes determine the influence of models on an individual : • 1. Attentional processes: People learn from a model only when they recognise and pay attention to its critical features. We tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, important to us and similar to us in our estimation. • 2. Retention processes: A model’s influence depends on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the model is no longer available. • 3. Motor reproduction processes: Watching must be converted to Doing. • 4. Reinforcement processes: Behaviours that are positively reinforced are given more attention, learned better, and performed more often.
  27. 27. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 7. Equity theory / Organisational Justice. • Ashish Mohapatra graduated last year with an M.H.A. from Manipal. Got placed with Pfizer in Marketing. He was very pleased. Challenging work, prestigious firm, an excellent opportunity to gain valuable experience, and the highest package in his class. Ashish was mature and articulate. • 12 months later, the work has proved to be as challenging and satisfying as he had hoped for. He has just received a 15% raise. But his motivational level has dropped dramatically in the last 1 week. WHY? • His employer has just hired a fresh graduate from IHMR, Jaipur, for Rs.4,000 more per month than what Ashish is drawing now. Ashish is upset. He is even talking about looking for another job.
  28. 28. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • Employees perceive what they get from a job (salary, recognition) in relationship to what they put into it ( Education, Effort, Experience, Competence ). • They then compare their outcome-input ratio with that of relevant others. • If we perceive the ratio to be equal, a state of equity exists. • When we perceive inequality, we experience Equity tension. • When we see ourselves as underrewarded, the tension creates anger. • When we see ourselves as overrewarded, it creates guilt.
  29. 29. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • There are 4 referent comparisons: • 1. Self-inside. An employee’s experiences in a different position inside the current organisation. • 2.Self-outside. An employee’s experiences in a position outside the current organisation. • 3.Other-inside. Another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organisation. • 4.Other-outside. Another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organisation.
  30. 30. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • Some observations: • Employees with short tenure in their current organisations tend to have little information about others inside the organisation, so they rely on their personal experiences. • Employees with long tenure rely more heavily on co- workers for comparison. • Upper-level employees, those in the professional ranks, and those with higher amounts of education tend to have better information about people in other organisations and will make other-outside comparisons.
  31. 31. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • Employees who perceive inequity will make one of 6 choices: • 1. Change their inputs (exert less effort if underpaid, or more if overpaid) • 2. Change their outcomes(individuals paid on a piece rate basis can increase their pay by producing a higher quantity of units of lower quality) • 3. Distort perceptions of self (I used to think I work at a moderate pace, but now I realise I work a lot harder than everyone else) • 4. Distort perceptions of others ( Raja Hussain’s job isn’t as desirable as I thought) • 5. Choose a different refferent (“I may not make as much as my brother in law, but I am doing a lot better than my Dad did when he was my age”) • 6. Leave the field (quit the job) • Some of these have support from research, others don’t. • Inequities created by overpayment do not seem to have a very significant impact on behaviour in most work situations. People seem to tolerate it very well.
  32. 32. Distributive justice: Definition: Perceived fairness of outcome. Example: I got the pay raise I deserved. Procedural Justice: Definition: Perceived fairness of process used to determine outcome. Example: I had input into the process used to give raises and was given a good explanation of why I received the raise I did. Interactional justice: Definition: Perceived degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect. Example: When telling me about my raise, my supervisor was very nice and complimentary Organisational Justice Definition: Overall perception of what is fair in the workplace. Example: I think this is a fair place to work.
  33. 33. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS • 8. Expectancy theory (Victor Vroom): The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. • One of the most widely accepted explanations of Motivation. • The theory focusses on 3 relationships: • 1. Effort-performance relationship: The probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. • 2. Performance-reward relationship: The degree to which the individual believes performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome. • 3. Rewards-personal goals relationship: The degree to which organisational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual