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Chapter 12 Motivation
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Analyze the motivational forces present in a specific situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentia...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how job enrichment can influence an employee's motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare a...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>State how goal setting can affect motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the major types of social...
What is Motivation? <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energize behavio...
Sources of Motivation <ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For self-esteem </li></u...
Motivation Theories <ul><li>Personal needs that workers attempt to satisfy. </li></ul><ul><li>Features in the work environ...
Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Internal factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives </l...
Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Five needs arranged in a hierarchy of strength and influence </li></ul>Need Hierarc...
Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Three classifications of needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Maslow’s and Alderfer’s Needs Theories Adapted from Exhibit 12.3: Maslow’s and Alderfer’s Needs Hierarchies Categories Hig...
Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Learned needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work...
Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Motivators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can increase job satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Motivators and Hygiene Factors Adapted from Exhibit 12.4: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Motivators and Hygiene Factors Rec...
Effects of Hygiene Factors and Motivators Adapted from Exhibit 12.5: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Differential Effects of...
<ul><li>Job characteristics model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core job characteristics   (skill variety and task    significance...
Job Characteristics Model Adapted from Exhibit 12.6:  Job Characteristics Model
<ul><li>Skill variety </li></ul>Core Job Characteristics Adapted from Exhibit 12.7: Core Job Characteristics in Job Charac...
<ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul>Core Job Characteristics Adapted from Exhibit 12.7: Core Job Characteristics in Job Characteris...
Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Deal with the way different variables combine to influence the amount of effort peo...
Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Focuses on individuals’ comparisons of their own circumstances to those of others <...
Equity Theory Adapted from Exhibit 12.8:  Equity Theory
Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Focuses on the thought processes people use when faced with choosing among alternat...
Expectancy Theory E  = effort P  = performance O  = outcome V  = valence Adapted from Exhibit 12.9:  Components of Expecta...
Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>To influence employees’ motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify rewards that are ...
Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Self-efficacy: A person’s confidence that he or she can accomplish a given task in ...
Self-efficacy Adapted from Exhibit 12.10:  Social Cognitive Theory: Methods to Increase an Individual’s Feelings of Selfef...
Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Human action is directed by conscious goals and intentions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mo...
Role of Reinforcements and Consequences <ul><li>Events that happen to an    individual following a    particular behavior ...
Strengthening Behavior <ul><li>Rewards that increase the likelihood of behavior being repeated in the future </li></ul><ul...
Strengthening Behavior <ul><li>Undesirable consequences that, by being removed or avoided, increase the likelihood of a be...
Weakening Behavior <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undesirable consequences that are given following behavior in ...
<ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul>Reinforcement Approaches Reinforcement Managerial  Approach  Action  Effect  Exam...
<ul><li>Extinction </li></ul>Reinforcement Approaches Adapted from Exhibit 12.11: Reinforcement Approaches and Their Effec...
Planned Programs of Positive Reinforcement <ul><li>Specify desired performance precisely </li></ul><ul><li>Measure desired...
Social Influences on Motivation <ul><li>Influence of the immediate workgroup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual is a member ...
Influence of Values and Attitudes Toward Work <ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect what kinds of behaviors individu...
<ul><li>Core </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul>Differences in Core Values American Japanese Arabic Competition Risk-takin...
Work Centrality: Country Differences United States (4.79) Japan (5.2) Israel (4.89) Germany (4.29)  Work Centrality Adapte...
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Motivational theories

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Motivational theories

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Motivation
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Analyze the motivational forces present in a specific situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between the various content and process theories of motivation and indicate how each can be helpful in analyzing a given motivational situation. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain how job enrichment can influence an employee's motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the various approaches to reinforcement and describe their relative advantages and disadvantages for use by managers. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  4. 4. Learning Objectives <ul><li>State how goal setting can affect motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the major types of social influence on employees' motivation and explain how each type can impact motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how values and attitudes toward work can influence motivation. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  5. 5. What is Motivation? <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energize behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustain behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External and internal forces </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sources of Motivation <ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career advancement </li></ul></ul>Adapted from Exhibit 12.1: Key Variables that Influence Motivation INTERNAL (PUSH FORCES) EXTERNAL (PULL FORCES) Characteristics of THE INDIVIDUAL (examples) Characteristics of THE JOB Characteristics of THE WORK SITUATION (examples) (examples) <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work load </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discretion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How job is performed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immediate Social Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisor(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workgroup members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards & compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure for high levels of output </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Motivation Theories <ul><li>Personal needs that workers attempt to satisfy. </li></ul><ul><li>Features in the work environment that satisfy a worker’s needs. </li></ul><ul><li>How different variables can combine to influence the amount of effort put forth by employees. </li></ul>Adapted from Exhibit 12.2: Motivation Theories Content Theories Process Theories Focus Theories <ul><li>Equity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Need Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland’s Acquired Need Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory </li></ul>
  8. 8. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Internal factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Need Hierarchy and Alderfer’s ERG Theory </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory </li></ul>
  9. 9. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Five needs arranged in a hierarchy of strength and influence </li></ul>Need Hierarchy <ul><li>Satisfy most basic (prepotent) needs first </li></ul><ul><li>Move to the next level of needs after preceding needs is satisfied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security (safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social (belongingness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Three classifications of needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different levels of the needs can be active at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Person may stay at one level, if frustrated by trying to attain the next higher level </li></ul>ERG Theory
  11. 11. Maslow’s and Alderfer’s Needs Theories Adapted from Exhibit 12.3: Maslow’s and Alderfer’s Needs Hierarchies Categories Highest-order needs Most essential (prepotent) needs Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Categories Alderfer’s Needs Hierarchy Categories Self-actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Growth Relatedness Existence
  12. 12. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Learned needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work on tasks of moderate difficulty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take moderate risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take personal responsibility for one’s own actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receive specific and concrete feedback on one’s own performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul></ul>Acquired Needs Theory
  13. 13. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Motivators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can increase job satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors related to doing the job (work itself, responsibility, personal growth, sense of achievement, recognition) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hygiene factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can prevent dissatisfaction, but cannot increase satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors extrinsic to or surrounding the job (supervision, relations with co-workers, working conditions, company policies and practices) </li></ul></ul>Two-Factor Theory
  14. 14. Motivators and Hygiene Factors Adapted from Exhibit 12.4: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Motivators and Hygiene Factors Recognition Achievement Growth Responsibility Nature of the work Motivators: Factors directly related to doing a job Hygiene Factors: Elements associated with conditions surrounding the job Job Relations with co-workers Working conditions Benefits Compensation Supervision
  15. 15. Effects of Hygiene Factors and Motivators Adapted from Exhibit 12.5: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Differential Effects of Hygiene Factors and Motivators <ul><li>Hygiene factors must be satisfied first, leading to a state of being neither satisfied nor dissatisfied </li></ul><ul><li>From the state of being neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, motivators can impel an employee’s motivation and performance to higher levels </li></ul>Hygiene-Factors Extrinsic factors related to conditions surrounding the job: Motivators Intrinsic factors related to the doing of the job itself: Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
  16. 16. <ul><li>Job characteristics model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core job characteristics (skill variety and task significance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for outcomes of work) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected outcomes (high internal work motivation and high work effectiveness) </li></ul></ul>Content Theories of Motivation Implications for Job Design
  17. 17. Job Characteristics Model Adapted from Exhibit 12.6: Job Characteristics Model
  18. 18. <ul><li>Skill variety </li></ul>Core Job Characteristics Adapted from Exhibit 12.7: Core Job Characteristics in Job Characteristics Model Core Job Definition Example Characteristics Task identity Task significance The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work, involving the use of a number of different skills and talents of the person. The aerospace engineer must be able to create blueprints, calculate tolerances, provide leadership to the work group, and give presentations to upper management. The degree to which a job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a viable outcome. The event manager handles all the plans for the annual executive retreat, attends the retreat, and receives information on its success from the participants. The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people, whether those people are in the immediate organization or in the world at large. The finance manager devises a new benefits plan to improve health coverage for all employees.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul>Core Job Characteristics Adapted from Exhibit 12.7: Core Job Characteristics in Job Characteristics Model The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Feedback from job R&D scientists are linked via the company intranet, allowing them to post their ideas, ask questions, and propose solutions at any hour of the day, whether at the office, at home, or on the road. The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job provides the individual with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. The lathe operator knows he is cutting his pieces correctly, as very few are rejected by the workers in the next production area. Source: Adapted from J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980). Core Job Definition Example Characteristics
  20. 20. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Deal with the way different variables combine to influence the amount of effort people put forth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectancy theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social cognitive theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-setting theory </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Focuses on individuals’ comparisons of their own circumstances to those of others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs (age, experience, education, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes (salary, benefits, titles, perks, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratios of an individual’s input/outcome versus that ratio of another person or people </li></ul></ul>Equity Theory
  22. 22. Equity Theory Adapted from Exhibit 12.8: Equity Theory
  23. 23. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Focuses on the thought processes people use when faced with choosing among alternative courses of action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul></ul>Expectancy Theory <ul><ul><li>Expectancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumentality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a </li></ul><ul><li>Effort  (E P) x (P O) x V </li></ul>
  24. 24. Expectancy Theory E = effort P = performance O = outcome V = valence Adapted from Exhibit 12.9: Components of Expectancy Theory E P (I believe high effort will lead to good performance) P O (I believe high performance will lead to recognition from my supervisor) Effort Performance Outcome (V: I do or do not value recognition from my supervisor) Expectancy Instrumentality
  25. 25. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>To influence employees’ motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify rewards that are valued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen subordinates’ beliefs that their efforts will lead to valued rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify subordinates’ understanding of exactly where they should direct their efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure that the desired rewards under your control are given directly following particular levels of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide levels and amounts of rewards that are consistent with a realistic level of expected rewards </li></ul></ul>Expectancy Theory
  26. 26. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Self-efficacy: A person’s confidence that he or she can accomplish a given task in a specific situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude (how difficult a task can be accomplished) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength (certainty of accomplishment), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generality (extent to which similar but not identical tasks can be accomplished). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High self-efficacy beliefs is associated with better work-related performance </li></ul>Social Cognitive Theory
  27. 27. Self-efficacy Adapted from Exhibit 12.10: Social Cognitive Theory: Methods to Increase an Individual’s Feelings of Selfefficacy Self-efficacy Self-efficacy Self-efficacy Vicarious Learning Physiological or Psychological Arousal Verbal Persuasion Enactive Mastery Self-efficacy
  28. 28. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Human action is directed by conscious goals and intentions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More challenging (higher or harder) goals, if accepted, result in higher levels of effort than easier goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific goals result in higher levels of effort than vague goals. </li></ul></ul>Goal-Setting Theory
  29. 29. Role of Reinforcements and Consequences <ul><li>Events that happen to an individual following a particular behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude of the consequence </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Strengthening Behavior <ul><li>Rewards that increase the likelihood of behavior being repeated in the future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available (capable of being given) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not exclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversible </li></ul></ul>Positive Reinforcement
  31. 31. Strengthening Behavior <ul><li>Undesirable consequences that, by being removed or avoided, increase the likelihood of a behavior being repeated in the future </li></ul>Negative Reinforcement
  32. 32. Weakening Behavior <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undesirable consequences that are given following behavior in order to decrease the likelihood it will be repeated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can have inadvertent effects of increasing other undesired behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The absence of positive consequences for behavior, lessening the likelihood of that behavior in the future </li></ul></ul>Punishment and Extinction
  33. 33. <ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul>Reinforcement Approaches Reinforcement Managerial Approach Action Effect Example Provide desirable consequence Increase probability of behavior being repeated Highway construction supervisor receives bonus for each day a project is completed ahead of schedule. Negative reinforcement Remove undesirable consequence Increase probability of behavior being repeated Management stops raising output quotas each time workers exceed them. Punishment Provide undesirable consequence Decrease probability of behavior being repeated Habitually tardy crew member is fined the equivalent of one hour’s pay each day he is late to work. Adapted from Exhibit 12.11: Reinforcement Approaches and Their Effects
  34. 34. <ul><li>Extinction </li></ul>Reinforcement Approaches Adapted from Exhibit 12.11: Reinforcement Approaches and Their Effects Remove desirable consequence Decrease probability of behavior being repeated Group member stops making unsolicited suggestions when team leader no longer mentions them in group meetings. Reinforcement Managerial Approach Action Effect Example
  35. 35. Planned Programs of Positive Reinforcement <ul><li>Specify desired performance precisely </li></ul><ul><li>Measure desired behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Provide frequent positive consequences for specified behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the effectiveness of the program </li></ul>
  36. 36. Social Influences on Motivation <ul><li>Influence of the immediate workgroup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual is a member of the “in-group” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual has strong desire to be part of that group and to receive that group’s approval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence of supervisors and subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of organization’s culture </li></ul>
  37. 37. Influence of Values and Attitudes Toward Work <ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect what kinds of behaviors individuals will find rewarding and satisfying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes toward work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work centrality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual at a point in time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differs between cultures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Core </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul>Differences in Core Values American Japanese Arabic Competition Risk-taking Material possessions Freedom Group harmony Belonging Reputation Family security Religious belief Social recognition Adapted from Exhibit 12.12: Differences in Core Values among Three Cultures
  39. 39. Work Centrality: Country Differences United States (4.79) Japan (5.2) Israel (4.89) Germany (4.29) Work Centrality Adapted from Exhibit 12.13: Work Centrality: Country Differences 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

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