Poli330 Chap8


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Poli330 Chap8

  1. 1. Russia Chapter 8
  2. 2. Basic Facts <ul><li>Total area: 1.8 times larger than U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Pop: 143.5 million </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative structure: federal system, 89 subnational governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive: dual executive – president and prime minister </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative: bicameral. Upper house – Federation Council. Lower house – state Duma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiparty system with dominant party – United Russia </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Russia largest European country in population and size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest country in world – ten time zones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dec 1991 – Soviet Union ended - eventual formation of Russian Federation (one of 15 successor states) </li></ul><ul><li>73% people live in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant natural resources: oil, natural gas, mineral resources (gold & diamonds), forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil and natural gas – main trading resources </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Critical Junctures <ul><li>Before 1917 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tsar – monarch/emperor – autocratic state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrimonial state – state not only ruled country, but owned land as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural system – tied peasants to nobles, state, or church (serfdom) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serfs emancipated by Tsar Alexander II 1861 – attempted to modernize Russia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle class (bourgeoisie) failed to emerge in Russia – unlike Western Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade unions illegal until 1906 – after revolution of 1905 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Bolshevik Revolution & Soviet Union (1917-1929) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First revolution – March 1917 – provisional government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>November 1917 – Bolsheviks (Vladimir Lenin) took power – “land, peace and bread” slogan appealed to peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended civil war – 1918-1921 – whites v. reds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally – democratic centralism – hierarchical party structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vanguard party concept– party leaders better able to understand interests of “the people” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) – aka Soviet Union - officially formed 1922 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual change from democratic concepts to authoritarian rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenin died 1924 – rise of Joseph Stalin – Trotsky & Bukharin exiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period of international isolation – until WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid industrialization and increased political control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenin’s hope for other revolutions in Western Europe did not materialize </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Stalin 1929-1953 <ul><li>Changes under Stalin – consolidation of economic, political, ideological power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State ownership of land, factories, houses, stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collectivization of farms – led to famine, millions peasants died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry – focus on heavy industries (dams, mills) – production of consumer goods neglected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social upheaval – people forced to move to cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissidents killed or exiled to Siberia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation of citizens from outside world key to Stalinist control </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Soviet Union and WWII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazis invaded Soviet Union 1941 – Stalin joined Allied forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War casualties high – 27 million died (19 million civilians) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major force in defeat of Axis powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After war – Allies allowed USSR to absorb new territories – Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Moldavia, western Ukraine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed to reshape governments in eastern Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, & Romania </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local Communist parties in these countries gained control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Became the “Soviet Bloc” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Post-Stalin - 1953-1985 <ul><li>Stalin’s death 1953 – triggered another critical juncture – Cold War had begun after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Nikita Khrushchev – party leader from 1955-1964 – attempt to de-Stalinize – thaw in political & cultural life </li></ul><ul><li>Leonid Brezhnev – 1964-1982 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much stricter controls – but predictable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissidents were arrested or exiled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tacit social contract – in exchange for political compliance, people had job security, lax work environments, free social services, minimal interference in personal life. Intelligentsia – more freedom to discuss issues </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Mikhail Gorbachev 1985-1991 <ul><li>Instituted four important concepts of reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perestroika (restructuring) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual enterprises allowed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glasnost (openness) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxed controls on public debate & publications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demokratizatsiia (Gorby’s concept of democracy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political responsive to public – basic elections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ New Thinking” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifically foreign policy – rethinking international power in nonmilitary terms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Gorbachev’s policies triggered change in relationship between state and society in USSR </li></ul><ul><li>His greatest success in foreign policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military buildup of USSR halted – arms agreements with US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War was “over” by late 1980s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1991 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Russian Federation 1991 to present <ul><li>Gorbachev removed from power 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Boris Yeltsin & others responsible for formation of Russian Federation Dec 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to Western-style democracy and economic reform </li></ul><ul><li>1993 –showdown between Yeltsin & parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Economic reforms – not successful – led to political crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Yeltsin ill by 1999 – resigned – nominated Vladimir Putin as prime minister to take control (former KGB) </li></ul><ul><li>Current president – Dmitry Medvedev (elected March 2008) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Themes in Russian politics <ul><li>Tradition of strong state control </li></ul><ul><li>Intertwining of politics, economics, ideology – make it difficult to create democracy and economic reform at same time </li></ul><ul><li>Four transition processes initiated in early 1990s – tried to tackle all at once </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redefinition of national identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration into world economy </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Russian culture may have inhibited adaptation to market economy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak tradition of entrepreneurship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread commitment to egalitarian values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliance on personal trust vs written contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit less important than support for friends & coworkers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, younger Russians more able to adapt to economic conditions – different expectations </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Social policy <ul><li>Under Soviet system – citizens received extensive benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed employment & job security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retirement age 55 women, 60 for men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System plagued by shortages & low-quality service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor productivity low, work discipline weak – “we pretend to work, they pretend to pay us” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively low level of inequality </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Russians thus expected broad range of social welfare benefits – but weak economy prevented widespread assistance </li></ul><ul><li>In 1990s, increasing homelessness & poverty – gap between rich & poor </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment rate 8-9% in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Higher rates crime, suicide, alcoholism – have declined in past couple of years </li></ul>
  17. 17. Organization of the State <ul><li>New constitution in 1993 affirms principles of liberal democratic governance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiparties – competitive elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent judiciary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of individual civil liberties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of president’s executive power </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Executive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semipresidential system – resembles French system – but stronger executive power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President is head of state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime minister (appointed by president, approved by Duma) – head of government – can be removed by two no confidence votes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President elected directly – every four years, limit two consecutive terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President – authority to issue decrees, which have force of law until legislation passed – but can be annulled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commander in chief of armed forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If president dies, prime minister steps in until new elections </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Legislature – Federal Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Power in legislative & budgetary areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower house – Duma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>450 members direct popular election </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Named after assembly formed under tsar – Russian vs Soviet tradition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elections every four years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elects own speakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main legislative branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper house – Federation Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two members from each of Russia’s federal regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One appointed by regional executive, one by regional legislature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prominent businessman among appointees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not much power </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Political Parties <ul><li>Shift from single party to multiparty system </li></ul><ul><li>In early 1990s, formed around prominent individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant party now, United Russia Party – draws on following tendencies (but more Centrist) </li></ul><ul><li>Four party tendencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional left – critical of market reform & mildly nationalistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal-reform forces – favor Western-style market reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrist “parties of power” – political elite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalistic/patriotic forces – national identity issues </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Ongoing Issues <ul><li>National identity – haunted by Soviet past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence of states – Chechnya – human rights violations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revolution – again? Georgia, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan examples </li></ul><ul><li>Religion – Russian Orthodox Church </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda through electronic media </li></ul><ul><li>Effective use of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Economy – large gap between rich & poor </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear arsenal – protecting from terrorists </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Georgia incident </li></ul>