Political Science 2 – Comparative Politics - Power Point #7


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Political Science 2 – Comparative Politics - Spring 2013 - Power Point Presentation #7 - © 2013 Tabakian, Inc.

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Political Science 2 – Comparative Politics - Power Point #7

  1. 1. Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 2 Modern World Governments – Fall 2012Power Point Presentation – October 9th & October 11th
  2. 2. COURSE LECTURE TOPICSThis Week’s Lecture Covers:•Germany Current Policy Changes Historical Legacy Following Two Paths Social Forces Institutions And Structure Of Government Remaking Political Cultures Political Learning Political Communication Citizen Participation Politics At The Elite Level Interest Groups The Party System
  3. 3. COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #7 (2) The Role Of Elections Party Government The Policy Process Policy Performance Addressing The Policy Challenges After The Revolution•Japan Current Policy Challenges Historical Origins Of The Modern Japanese State The Occupation Political Institutions Electoral Systems And Electoral Competition The Japanese Party System Political Participation And Voting Behavior
  4. 4. COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #7 (3)Political Participation And Voting BehaviorInterest GroupsPolitical Culture And Issue CleavagesPolitical SocializationThe Policymaking ProcessPolicy Performance
  6. 6. COUNTRY BIO: GERMANY (2)• Population: • Language: – 82.5 million – German• Territory: • Religion: – 137,803 sq. miles – Protestant 34%• Year of Independence: – Roman Catholic 34% – 1871 – Muslim 4%• Year of Current Constitution: – Unaffiliated or other 28% – 1949 • Scheduled Castes• Head of State: – 16.2% of population – President Horst Kohler • Scheduled Tribes• Head of Government: – 8.2% of population – Chancellor Angela Merkel
  7. 7. BACKGROUND: GERMANY• Merkel’s election in 2005 – Testimony to change in Germany – Communism distant past – Two halves of the nation acting as one• Major achievement of contemporary German politics – Creation of a unified, free, and democratic nation in a short period of time – Unification occurred in 1990 – Contributed to a stable Europe
  8. 8. CURRENT POLICY CHALLENGES• Unification related issues – Eastern Germany: struggled to compete in the globalized economic system – EU has invested more than 1,000 billion Euros in the East since unification • Taxes increased for all Germans in the process• General socioeconomic course of the nation – What direction for economic reform? – German labor costs and benefits high by international standards without comparable productivity – Social welfare costs spiraled upward
  9. 9. CURRENT POLICY CHALLENGES• Multicultural nation – New source of political tension• Foreign policy challenges – Role in the EU – Role in the post-Cold War world
  10. 10. THE HISTORICAL LEGACY• The Second German Empire – Bismarck, 1871 – Authoritarian state – Power flowed from the Kaiser – Suppression of opposition – World War I • Devastated the nation – 3 million German soldiers and civilians lost their lives – Economy strained to the breaking point – Government collapsed
  12. 12. THE HISTORICAL LEGACY• The Weimar Republic – 1919 – popularly elected constitutional assembly established the new democratic system of the Weimer Republic – Constitution granted all citizens the right to vote and guaranteed basic human rights – Directly elected parliament and president – Hopeful beginning – disastrous end
  13. 13. THE HISTORICAL LEGACY (1)• Severe problems – Versailles Peace Treaty: lost all overseas colonies and large amount of European territory – Burdened with moral guilt and reparations: economic problems – Great Depression of 1929 • Hurt Germany harder than it hurt other countries including the U.S. • One third of the labor force became unemployed • Parliamentary democracy began to fail • Emergence of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (the Nazis)
  14. 14. THE HISTORICAL LEGACY (2) • Failure due to a mix of factors – Lack of support from political elites and the public • They seemed to long for the old authoritarian system • Many Germans were not committed to democratic principles – Economic and political crises • Eroded public support and opened the door to Hitler – Most Germans drastically underestimated Hitler’s ambitions, intentions, and political abilities.
  15. 15. THE HISTORICAL LEGACY (3)• The Third Reich – Hitler: election 1933 – Used domination of the parliament to enact legislation granting Hitler dictatorial powers – New authoritarian “leader state” – Hitler pursued extremist policies • Destroyed opposition • Attacked Jews and other minorities • Massive public works projects lessened unemployment • Expansion of the army • Expansionist foreign policy led to WWII – Initial victories, but followed by a series of military defeats beginning in 1942 • 60 million lives lost worldwide in the war, including 6 million European Jews who were murdered via systematic genocide • At the end of the war, Germany in ruins
  16. 16. THE HISTORICAL LEGACY (4)• The Occupation Period – At the end of the war, the Western Allies (U.S., Britain, and France) controlled Germany’s Western zone and the Soviet Union occupied the Eastern zone. – West • Denazification • New political parties and democratic political institutions • Basic Law (Grundgesetz) – East • Socialist Unity Party • Draft constitution for the German Democratic Republic- East Germany
  17. 17. FOLLOWING TWO PATHS• Faced similar challenges• West Germany – Economic challenge – Free enterprise system • Christian Democratic Union • Economic Miracle• East Germany – Economic miracle almost as impressive – Collectivized agriculture, nationalized industry, and centralized planning• Process of reconciliation – Helmut Kohl – Gorbachev – Opening of the Berlin Wall – Western Germany dominated the process and the outcome
  18. 18. SOCIAL FORCES (1)• Economics – Largest state in the EU – Merger of two different economies• Religion – Unification has unsettled the delicate religious balance
  19. 19. SOCIAL FORCES (2)• Gender – Basic Law guarantees the equality of the sexes, but the specific legislation to support this guarantee often lacking – Merkel’s selection as Chancellor may have an impact• Minorities – Guest workers – Isolated from mainstream society – Lower end of economic ladder – Some opposition to further immigration• Regionalism – Potential source of social and political division
  20. 20. THE INSTITUTIONS AND STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT (1)• Basic law – specific goals: – To develop a stable and democratic political system – To maintain some historical continuity in political institutions (parliamentary system) – To recreate a federal structure of government – To avoid the institutional weakness that contributed to the collapse of Weimar democracy – To establish institutional limits on extremist and anti- system forces
  22. 22. THE INSTITUTIONS AND STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT (3)• A federal system (Bund) – State governments have a unicameral legislature, normally called a Landtag, which is directly elected by popular vote. – Sixteen states (Lander) – Political power divided between federal and state governments.• Parliamentary government – The Bundestag (Federal Diet)- 598 deputies; elections every four years • Enact legislation • Forum for public debate • Oversight- “question hour” – The Bundestrat (Federal Council)- 69 members • Role is to represent state interests• The Federal Chancellor and Cabinet – Strengthened formal powers (Basic Law) – Elected by the Bundestag – Control over the Cabinet
  23. 23. THE INSTITUTIONS AND STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT (4)• Federal government functions based on three principles based on Basic Law – Chancellor principle – Ministerial autonomy – Cabinet principle• The Federal President – Basic Law transformed this office into a mostly ceremonial one
  24. 24. THE INSTITUTIONS AND STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT (5) • The Judicial System – Ordinary courts – Administrative courts – Constitutional Court • The Separation of Powers – Basic Law – avoiding concentration of power – Constructive no-confidence vote – Role of Constitutional Court as a check
  25. 25. REMAKING POLITICAL CULTURES• Orientations – Toward the system and nation – Toward the democratic process• Social values and the new politics• Two peoples in one nation?
  27. 27. POLITICAL LEARNING AND POLITICAL COMMUNICATION• Family influences• Education• Social stratification• Mass media
  28. 28. CITIZEN PARTICIPATION• 1950s almost two-thirds of the West German public never discussed politics• Today about three-quarters claim they talk about politics regularly.• Rising participation levels – Growth of citizen action groups – Voting levels highest of any European democracy – Sign petitions, boycott – Both sides of the country actively involved
  30. 30. POLITICS AT THE ELITE LEVEL• Few thousand political elite manage the actual workings of the political system – Party elites – Leaders of interest groups and political associations• Recruitment – Long apprenticeship period• Varied political preferences among elites
  31. 31. INTEREST GROUPS• Interest groups are connected to the government more closely in Germany than in the U.S. – Formally involved in the policy process – Neocorporatism • Social interests are organized into virtually compulsory organizations. • A single association represents each social sector. • These associations are hierarchically structured. • Associations may participate directly in the policy process. – Business – Labor – Religious interests – New politics movement
  32. 32. THE PARTY SYSTEM• Christian Democrats• Free Democratic Party• The Greens• The Party of Democratic Socialism
  36. 36. THE ROLE OF ELECTIONS• Goals of Basic Laws for the electoral system: – Create a proportional representation system (PR) – Also, use single-member system to avoid fragmentation of the Weimar party system and ensure some accountability between electoral district and its representative – Mixed electoral system • Ballot: vote for a candidate to represent district; second part of the ballot they select a party • Half of Bundestag members are elected a district representatives and half as party representatives. • 5 percent clause • Party leaders have influence on who will be elected due to their ability to place candidates on the list • PR system also ensures fair representation for minor parties • Affects campaign strategies• The electoral connection
  37. 37. PARTY GOVERNMENT• Parties are important political actors in German politics.• Basic Law – Specifically refers to political parties – Guarantees their legitimacy and their right to exist- if they accept the principles of democratic government – Primary institutions of representative democracy – Educational function of parties – No direct primaries – Candidates are merely “representatives” of the party – Parties form government and are central actors within the Bundestag • Structured around parties • Cohesion high
  38. 38. THE POLICY PROCESS• Policy initiation – Most issues reach the policy agenda through the executive branch.• Legislating policy – State and federal governments share legislative power.
  40. 40. THE POLICY PROCESS• Policy administration – Basic law assigned the administrative responsibility for most domestic policies to the state governments – States employ more civil servants than the federal and local governments combined.• Judicial review – Constitutional Court can evaluate the constitutionality of legislation and void laws that violate the provisions of the Basic Law.
  41. 41. POLICY PERFORMANCE• The Federal Republic’s policy record – Increases in total public spending and new policy responsibilities – Difficult to describe the activities in terms of revenue and budgets – complex system • Extensive network of social services – Social security programs are the largest part of public expenditures • Policy responsibility is divided among three levels of government – Education – Defense and foreign policy – Economic policy – NATO• Public expenditures show the policy efforts of the government, but the actual results of this spending are more difficult to assess.
  43. 43. POLICY PERFORMANCE• Overall, many areas have seen improvement in both sections of the country: housing, living standards, work, income, social security, environmental security, and public security.• Paying the Costs – Three different types of revenue provide the bulk of resources for public policy programs: • Contributions to the social security system (self-financed by employer and employee contributions) • Direct taxes • Indirect taxes
  46. 46. ADDRESSING THE POLICY CHALLENGES• The problems of unification• Reforming the welfare state• A new world role
  47. 47. AFTER THE REVOLUTION• Unification – Presented new social, political, and economic challenges for the nation. – Mergers bring problems. • Strains magnified by elites • Need for consensus both socially and politically – Resolution of questions regarding national identity
  48. 48. COUNTRY BIO: JAPAN (1)
  49. 49. COUNTRY BIO: JAPAN (2)• Population: • Language: – 127.7 million• Territory: – Japanese – 145,882 sq. miles • Religion(s):• Year of Independence: – Observe both Shinto and Buddhist – 660 B.C. 84%%, other 16% (including• Year of Current Constitution: Christian 0.7%) – 1947• Head of State: – Emperor Akihito• Head of Government: – Prime Minister Shinzo Abe
  50. 50. BACKGROUND (1)• Japan is the only long-lived democracy in East Asia.• Rapid economic growth post WWII – Fascinating to the world given Japan’s scarcity of natural resources and its overcrowded population. • 7th most populous country in the world. • Only 20% of country is made up arable land. • How did it evolve into the 2nd largest economy in the world? – Other countries want to figure out the “Japan model” of rapid development where government is seen as playing an important economic role.• Prolonged recession in the 1990s – But still 2nd largest economy
  51. 51. BACKGROUND (2)• Democracy but with atypical institutions – Constitution imposed on Japan by the U.S.-led occupation authorities in 1946. – Never amended that constitution. • Foreign origin and alien ideals • Undermined by actual political practices – Corruption – Powerful bureaucrats – Political stability has vanished temporarily » Party system has fragmented
  52. 52. CURRENT POLICY CHALLENGES (1)• Recession – 1997 Japan’s first full year of negative economic growth since 1975 • Banking crisis from the bursting of the inflated land price bubble of the late 1980s • Mountains of unrecoverable loans • Deflation, unemployment and bankruptcies • Shocked the national psyche – Government slow to respond• Rapidly aging population• Closed domestic markets• Deregulation of economy needed
  53. 53. CURRENT POLICY CHALLENGES (2) • Need modernization of immigration policy • Security issues • Despite all these challenges Japanese remain among the wealthiest and longest-lived people in the world
  54. 54. HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF THE MODERN JAPANESE STATE (1)• First inhabitants – Hunter-gatherers from the Asian mainland• Jomon - 11,000 B.C. – 300 B.C. shift from Jomon culture occurred• New culture: Yayoi – Use of bronze and iron, including weaponry – Development of wet field rice agriculture – Spread over islands – Yamato, most powerful clan
  55. 55. HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF THE MODERN JAPANESE STATE (2)• Japanese court - sponsored Buddhism – Began to write histories, legal codes• Samurai’s began to assume more power and warred with each other• Tokugawa clan: ruled from 1600 to 1868 – Feudal system – Confucian doctrine
  56. 56. HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF THE MODERN JAPANESE STATE (3)• Isolation• Commodore Matthew C. Perry – Open ports to trade• Meiji Restoration (1868)• Oligarchs – Constitution – Established the Diet – Nascent political parties• Taisho Democracy (1918-1932) – Cabinets dominated by political parties – Zaibatsu favoritism – Growth of military – Ultranationalism
  57. 57. THE OCCUPATION (1)• Allied Occupation of Japan – Administered by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) – U.S. General Douglas MacArthur • Demilitarize and democratize Japan • Render Japan unable and unwilling to wage war ever again – New constitution • Peace Clause, Article 9 – Land reform – Independent trade-union movement – Structural changes to the bureaucracy
  58. 58. THE OCCUPATION (2)• Goals shifted from demilitarization to securing Japan as a reliable ally in the Cold War – 1951 general peace treaty in San Francisco with all allied powers except the Soviet Union – U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Treaty
  59. 59. POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS (1)• Japan’s system of government – Parliamentary, bicameral, and nonfederal• The National Diet: House of Representatives – House of Councillors• Local government – 47 Prefectures • Each elects its own governor and legislature • All local government authority is delegated and may be retracted• The Judiciary – Judicial independence; guaranteed in the Constitution – Cabinet directly appoints the 15 members of the Supreme Court • Helps to appoint all lower court appointments as well • LDP - only elderly judges; forced retirement • Secretariat • Malapportionment case
  61. 61. ELECTORAL SYSTEMS AND ELECTORAL COMPETITION (1)• Two chambers of the National Diet use different electoral rules• Old electoral rules –House of Representatives – Return to Single Non-Transferable Vote (SNTV) system – LDP allowed candidates to create decentralized campaign organizations – Barriers to challengers – Lowered the electoral salience of issues – Restrictive rules for campaigning
  63. 63. ELECTORAL SYSTEMS AND ELECTORAL COMPETITION (3)• New electoral rules- House of Representatives – Size of the House of Representatives set at 500, later reduced to 480 – 4 year terms • 300 elected on the basis of equal-sized single-member districts • 180 are elected from 11 regional districts by proportional representation • Each voter casts two votes: one for a candidate in the SMD and one for a party in the PR district – Zombies – Goal of new rules: eliminate intraparty competition
  64. 64. ELECTORAL SYSTEMS AND ELECTORAL COMPETITION (4)• Electoral Rules – House of Councillors – Fixed six year terms – Half elected every three years – Each voter has two votes: • One cast in the prefectural SNTV district for an individual candidate • Second cast for a party in the national district (with each party receiving a share of the 50 PR seats that matches the share of the vote it receives) • Not much intraparty competition • Focus is on parties, not individuals • More issue-based campaigning
  65. 65. THE JAPANESE PARTY SYSTEM• Japanese party system combined multipartisim with the sustained dominance of one majority party. – The LDP• The Party System, 1946-1955 – Somewhat chaotic – Socialist Party - force in the Diet – Japan Communist Party – Japan Socialist Party – Liberal Democratic Party• The Party System, 1955-1993 – The 1960s – The 1970s – The 1980s
  67. 67. THE JAPANESE PARTY SYSTEM: SINCE 1993 (1)• Stability disappeared for a while – LDP tried to put together coalition party – Coalition was established • Contained seven parties except the LDP and the Communists • Goal: to complete the reform of the electoral system that the LDP had failed to accomplish
  69. 69. THE JAPANESE PARTY SYSTEM: SINCE 1993 (3)• Electoral reform passed – Next on the agenda: tax reform • Conflict and the coalitional government collapsed • Who emerged? The LDP with the help of their once enemy, the Japan Socialist Party and a smaller party. • Produced the first Socialist prime minister• New party system has elements of single member district systems plus proportional systems – Effect: party consolidation, campaigns have changed, intraparty organization, advent of coalition government
  71. 71. POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND VOTING BEHAVIOR• By international standards, ordinary Japanese are not very politically involved. – Identify with political party through personal identification with candidate or through an interest group affiliated with the party. – Koenkai • Changing nature in modern Japan given the end of intraparty competition • Transformed themselves into district level party organizations• Voter turnout declining steadily on a nationwide basis• Recently party identification has declined as well – More independents
  72. 72. INTEREST GROUPS• Big Business – keiretsu• Small-and medium-sized businesses• Agriculture• Organized labor – Enterprise unions
  73. 73. POLITICAL CULTURE AND ISSUE CLEAVAGES (1)• Hierarchy, homogeneity, and conformity to group objectives – Key concepts in the discussion of Japanese political culture – The feudal experience: hierarchy – Meiji attempt to Westernize culture may have produced backlash of nationalism found in pre- War and wartime Japan – Social hierarchy: family, workplace and in politics
  74. 74. POLITICAL CULTURE AND ISSUE CLEAVAGES (2)• Women: At home and in the workplace – “good wives and wise mothers” – Equal Employment Opportunity Law • Glass ceiling low and impenetrable • Little help from government; little social welfare • Japanese women marry later and bear fewer children • Impact of aging society
  76. 76. POLITICAL CULTURE AND ISSUE CLEAVAGES• Ethnic homogeneity vs. immigration – Japan is not completely homogenous – A few minority groups • High discrimination • Koreans- brought to Japan during the war as laborers – Still treated poorly today; a few become naturalized citizens – Citizenship does not come with birth – Demands of Japanese citizenship and impact if one chooses not to • Ainu • Burakumin – Few strong issue cleavages – New immigrants • Need for young workers• Conformity• Theory of Japaneseness
  78. 78. POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION (1)• The family – Urban society with nuclear families – Role of women• Education – High achieving in math and science – “cram schools” – Good basic skills; university system in sad shape • Extremely difficult entrance exams, but little challenging coursework • Entry into workforce after four years unspoiled by liberal ideas • School refusal syndrome • Portrayal of war against China
  79. 79. POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION (2)• Mass media – Play a highly visible role in public life – Television media – “press club”• Transforming political culture – Role of issues/policy in politics – Koizumi
  82. 82. THE POLICYMAKING PROCESS• Japan: parliamentary democracy with both houses of the Diet directly elected; with a prime minister and a cabinet chosen by the Lower House. – Tends to leave proposal of laws to the Cabinet and the Diet reserves the right to accept or reject or amend the proposals. – Cabinet delegates to bureaucracy the drafting of legislation
  83. 83. THE POLICYMAKING PROCESS: HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW• Members of either house may submit legislation – Member bills are almost always exercises in grandstanding
  84. 84. THE POLICYMAKING PROCESS: HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW- TYPICAL PATH (1)• Ministry drafts legislation and submits it to Cabinet; Cabinet acts on it (accept, reject, or amend). If it is to go on, the Cabinet will send it to the Diet. Diet may do whatever it wishes to the bill.• Normal legislation must be passed identically in both houses unless the Lower House can override(2/3’s vote) an Upper House objection. – Never happened
  85. 85. THE POLICYMAKING PROCESS: HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW- TYPICAL PATH (2)• If the bill is the annual budget, a treaty needing ratification, then only the Lower House need pass it. Upper House may delay it but not hold it up indefinitely.• Any bill passed by the Diet becomes the law of the land.• Final steps involve implementation: the bureaucracy• Elections allow the public to respond the performance of the government in power.
  86. 86. THE POLICYMAKING PROCESS: THE BUREAUCRACY• Very competent bureaucracy – Best and the brightest – Long hours; little pay – Prestige suffered in the 1990s• Heavily involved in the policy-making process but not dominant given the parliamentary system• Why do they do it? – Devotion to public service; prestige; potential for early retirement and a second more lucrative career – Amakudari – Compensation loaded on the back end• Bureaucrat bashing
  87. 87. THE POLICYMAKING PROCESS• The Diet: Rubber Stamp or Sovereign? – Weak and ineffective? – Majority party, LDP, intraparty conflict resolved – No need for conflict within Diet; not necessarily weak
  88. 88. POLICY PERFORMANCE• Industrial policy and the economic miracle• Trade policy• Security and foreign policy• Environmental pollution policy• Welfare policy: health care and pensions• Policy implications of political reform
  90. 90. CONCLUDING THOUGHTS ABOUT JAPANESE POLITICS• The most important lesson is that the Japanese policy process has been, and continues to be, supremely political – even if, on the surface, it seems that an insulated army of smart bureaucrats is calling the shots.