Russia 1905-1917 María Jesús Campos Chusteacher Wikiteacher
The Russian EmpireRussia was anempire thatstretched outfrom Europe toAsia. It includedmany differentnationalities.
The Tsar’s Empire• Nicolas II was crowned Tsar of Russia in 1894.• The Old Regime: – The Tsar ruled as an absolute monarch and rejected to carry out reforms – Until 1861 servitude/serfdom had not been abolished
The Russian Empire: Society Aristocracy Middle classes: capitalists Industrial and Urban Workers Peasants
The Aristocracy• 1,5 % of the population• Owned most of the land• Hold political positions and assisted the Tsar
The Capitalists• Landowners, industrialists, bankers, traders and businessmen.• Focused on increasing their wealth and controlling their workforce (industrial workers and peasants)
Industrial Workers• By the end of the 19th century Russia had experienced a rapid industrial growth.• Isolated industrial centers. Mainly St Petersburg (capital) and Moscow.• Trade unions were illegal.• Workers lived under harsh conditions.
Peasants• Around 80% of the population were peasants.• They lived in communes.• A few were kulaks (rich peasants).• Servitude had been abolished in 1861 but peasants still did not own the land.
The Russian Empire: Politics• Autocracy: the Tsar had almost absolute power and believed in the “divine right of kings”• Resistance in Russia was limited as most peasants and workers were deeply religious and loyal to the Tsar.
Opposition was illegal: to oppose the Tsar meant to be executed,sent to Siberia or going into exile. Many members decided to liveon foreing countries. Cadets Opposition to Socialist the Tsar Revolutionaries Bolsheviks Social Democratic Party Mensheviks
Socialist The Cadets Revolutionaries• Liberals • A revolution was• Wanted the Tsar needed to: and a Duma • Give land to (Parliament) to peasants share power • Abolish privileges • Used violent means
The Social Democratic Party• Followed Karl Marx’s ideas• In 1903 the SDP divided into: • Bolsheviks: led by Lenin. Russia was ready for a Revolution. • Mensheviks: Russia was not yet ready for a Revolution. They needed to prepare the population while demanding reform.
1903Living conditions and the activities of the The Tsar rejected reforms and started a waropposition parties led to a series of strikes and against Japan. Patriotism stopped protest for ademonstrations while 190522 January, Bloody Sunday: 200.000 people went The Tsar has left the palace. The Cosaks openedto the Tsar’s palace to ask for reforms fired against the crowd. 1905Demonstrations grew. The battleship Potemkin’s The Tsar stopped war against Japan to bring hissoldiers revolted. General strike in September. Lenin troops back. Revolution was crushed.and Trotsky returned from exile. Workers’ Councils Opposition leaders were sent to Siberia or wentor Soviets were formed. to exile.
The October Manifesto (1905)/ The Fundamental Laws (1906)• The Tsar issued the October Manifesto in 1905 to stop protest: – A Duma (Parliament ) was to be created. – Freedom of Speech – Right to form political parties• The Fundamental Laws (issued after crushing the revolt) accepted the Duma but with very limited power.
1906-1914• Duma: – Very limited power – Voting rules avoided the Tsar’s opponents to be elected as members – The Duma could not change Russian policies
1906-1914• Prime Minister Stolypin: “the carrot and the stick” – Brutally suppressed the opposition by hanging protesters (“Stolypin’s necktie”) – Allowed kulaks to obtain land – Economic growth: in agriculture; industry… but still far away from European industrialized countries
Economic growth• Agricultural production went from 40 million tons of grain in 1890 to 90 million tons in 1913• Coal production increased from 8 million tons in 1890 to 30 million tons in 1913• The profits went to the capitalists while the workers living conditions did not change much.
Rasputin• A miracle worker• The Tsarine believed he could cure his son’s haemophilia through hypnosis.• His influence grew and he was giving advice to the Tsar about how to govern Russia.
Russia enters the First World War (1914)• Member of the Triple Entente (France and Great Britain)• Patriotism again stopped protest.• The war was long and cruel. 13 million soldiers were sent to the front, 9,15 million died. Discontent grew.• 1917: strikes broke out all over Russia. Even members of the army supported them.
1917: the turning point• Discontent grew: lots of • The Petrograd Soviet was casualties; lack of bread created to take control of and supplies food supplies.• Strikes spread • It was not clear who• The Duma set a governed: the Duma, the Provisonal Committee to Pretrograd Soviet, the take over government. soldier’s soviets…but the When the Tsar ordered Tsar was not doing it the soldiers to imprisoned anymore. the Duma’s members, the soldiers refused.
The Tsar’s regime collapses Because of discontentBecause of the I WW inside the country
The Duma’s Provissional Government• The Tsar abdicated on 15 March 1917.• The Duma’s Provisional Goverment dedided: – To continue the war – Peasants should have to wait until the elections to get lands • At first the Petrograd soviet supported the Provisional Government.
Lenin and his April Theses• Leader of the Bolsheviks. Exiled in Europe to avoid the Tsar’s persecution.• Returned to Russia on a special train provided by the German government.• His theses: – All power to the soviets. – Peace, land and bread.
The Bolsheviks overthrow the Provissional Government• The Provisional Goverment had lost support because of the failures in the war. The Provisional Government has been Dessertions increased. overthrown. The cause for which the• The Bolsheviks obtained people have fought has been made support after the April safe: the inmediate proposal of a democratic peace, the end of land theses. owner’s rights, worker’s control over• November 1917, the production, the creation of a Soviet Bolsheviks Red Guard, led by government. Long live the revolution Leon Trotstky overthrew the of workers, soldiers and peasants. government. Proclamation of the Petrograd Soviet, 8 November 1917
October 1917: February 1917: The Bolshevik Duma’s Revolution 1905: Provisional Government the revolution’s rehearsal.1903:Discontentandstrikes.