Russian Revolution and Stalin


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  • For example - criminals (including murderers) usually received less than 10 years, politicals usually got at least 10 years - if not 20 or 30. Once in the gulag system, the politicals (regular people) were terrorized by the criminals (bad people).
  • Russian Revolution and Stalin

    1. 1. Russian Revolution & Communist Russia Soviet Union = USSR = Russia Thanks GSILL
    2. 2. THE FALL <ul><li>PROBLEMS in Russia: lack of freedom, poor leadership, major economic problems, & food shortages. </li></ul><ul><li>EVENTS that challenged the Czar’s authority: unionization, westernization, defeat in the Russo-Japanese War , “ Bloody Sunday ”, 1905 Revolution, & losses during World War I. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Stages of Russian Revolution <ul><li>1916-1917: Demonstrations and protests were held against the government (soldiers, rural and urban workers, and intelligentsia involved). </li></ul><ul><li>Bloodless Revolution in March 1917: Czar abdicates the throne and a provisional government (democratic / socialist) was set up. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Provisional Government Failed <ul><li>Radical movements gained support and momentum. </li></ul>
    5. 5. The BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION <ul><li>Nov 1917: The Bolsheviks (one of the radical communist groups) and their leader, Vladmir LENIN, gained enough support and power to seize control of the government (Nov. 1917) “on behalf of the people.” </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>- Socialism – </li></ul><ul><li>The means of production (businesses and services) are owned by the “public” and operated for the good of all. The government controls key industries and thus parts of the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>- Marxism / Communism - </li></ul><ul><li>A radical type of socialism based upon the belief that: </li></ul><ul><li>the working class majority would unite and forcibly take the political and economic power from the wealthy minority—who took advantage of them. </li></ul><ul><li>The working class would then control government, industry and agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Worker councils would govern “democratically”. Goods and services, profits and benefits would be shared equally. Eventually, a classless society would develop. </li></ul>
    8. 8. CIVIL WAR : 1918 - 1920 <ul><li>Civil War began as forces militarized in Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>RED – Bolsheviks, other communists, some socialists </li></ul><ul><li>WHITE - Nationalists, Monarchists, Moderates (with outside support) </li></ul>
    9. 9. CIVIL WAR : 1918 - 1920 <ul><li>The Czar and his family were executed before the Red Army finally took control of most of Russia. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Josef Stalin slowly gained power in the communist party, the government, and then became a totalitarian leader. His rivals were all removed violently or politically. And then came . . . STALIN!
    11. 11. Changing History
    12. 12. Changing History Four... Three... Two... One...
    13. 13. Psycho! <ul><li>“ To choose one’s victims, to prepare one’s plan, to quench a strong desire for vengeance, and then to go to bed . . .there is nothing sweeter in the world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Josef Stalin </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Great Terror 1937-38 <ul><li>Arrests - about 7 million </li></ul><ul><li>Executions - about 1 million </li></ul><ul><li>( Stalin’s signature appears on death warrants of over 600,000) </li></ul><ul><li>In prison or camps in late 1938 - about 9 million </li></ul><ul><li>Died in camps - about 2 million </li></ul>
    15. 15. Soviet Mentality <ul><li>Brutality of the state was for Soviets’ own protection (similar to Tsars’ control) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Politicals” – those who were “guilty” of spying, disloyalty, etc. received worse punishments then criminals </li></ul>
    16. 16. Gulags
    17. 17. Soviet Mentality <ul><li>Main propaganda included promises of prosperity and future success </li></ul>
    18. 18. Socialism in One Country <ul><li>According to Stalin, the duty of the USSR was to first create a strong state - must be able to defend against enemies! </li></ul><ul><li>“ We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do it or we shall be crushed” – Stalin </li></ul>
    19. 19. Socialism in One Country <ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of 5 year plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impressive results - by 1930’s USSR was the world’s 3rd leading industrial power! </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Socialism in One Country <ul><li>Agricultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1928 seized 25 million privately owned farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established gov’t owned farms called collectives </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Socialism in One Country <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brutal techniques were used against workers and farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret police coerced the population to meet economic goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive famine killed 5-10 million </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Socialism in One Country
    23. 23. What stayed the same? <ul><li>Largely rural population and strong agricultural base. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer-based economy never developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian economy mostly isolated from the West. </li></ul>
    24. 24. USSR- Changes in the Social Class and Families <ul><li>Similar changes as in the industrialized nations of the west. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family ties loosened, emphasis on nuclear families. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth rates declined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater emphasis on children succeeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christianity’s role in the family weakened. </li></ul>
    25. 25. USSR- Women’s Status <ul><li>“ Legal equality” with men. </li></ul><ul><li>Women joined the work force in industrialization and had some political roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Women gained ground in certain professions – such as medicine. </li></ul>
    26. 26. What stayed the same? <ul><li>Male-dominated society – politically and economically </li></ul><ul><li>No middle-class </li></ul><ul><li>Elite class still in control of the politics, economics, and society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Leader and communist party replaced Tsar and boyars) </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Full Circle... <ul><li>Stalin died in 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>“ All of us around Stalin were temporary” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Destalinization” of the USSR under Kruschev </li></ul>
    28. 28. Full Circle...