Explain why the Nazi party was able to capture power in the 1930s?
<ul><li>The German Workers' Party, the forerunner of the Nazi Party, espoused a right-wing ideology, like many similar groups of demobilized soldiers. Adolf Hitler joined this small political party and rose to leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>National pride </li></ul><ul><li>Militarism </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to the Volk </li></ul><ul><li>Racially pure Germany </li></ul><ul><li>He condemned the Jews </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Nazi Party seemed doomed to fail and its leaders, including Hitler, were subsequently jailed and charged with high treason (meaning- traitor). </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler had actually gained support for his courage to rant against the Weimar government. </li></ul>The right-wing presiding judges sympathized with Hitler and sentenced him to only five years in prison, with eligibility for early parole. Hitler was released from prison after one year. Other Nazi leaders were given light sentences also
<ul><li>The SA was the paramilitary unit of the Party, a propaganda arm that became known for its strong-arm tactics of street brawling and terror. </li></ul><ul><li>The SS was established as an elite group with special duties within the SA, but it remained inconsequential until Heinrich Himmler became its leader in 1929. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hitler Youth, the Student League and the Pupils' League were open to young Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Socialist Women's League allowed women to get involved. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1925 to 1927, the Nazi Party failed to make inroads in the cities and in May 1928, it did poorly in the elections, winning only 2.6% of the total vote. </li></ul>The Party shifted its strategy to rural and small town areas and fueled anti-Semitism by calling for expropriation of Jewish agricultural property and by condemning large Jewish department stores. Party propaganda proved effective at winning over university students, veterans' organizations, and professional groups, although the Party became increasingly identified with young men of the lower middle classes.
<ul><li>The Great Depression began and wrought worldwide economic, social, and psychological consequences. The Weimar democracy proved unable to cope with national despair as unemployment doubled from three million to six million. </li></ul><ul><li>The existing "Great Coalition" government collapsed while arguing about the rising cost of unemployment benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindenburg was the first chancellor under the new presidential system. He was unable to unify the government, and in September 1930, there were new elections. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazi Party won an important victory, capturing 18.3% of the vote to make it the second largest party in the Reichstag. </li></ul>
Germany's government remained on the brink of collapse. The SA brown shirts, about 400,000 strong, were a part of daily street violence. The economy was still in crisis. In the election of July 1932, the Nazi Party won 37% of the Reichstag seats, thanks to a massive propaganda campaign. For the next six months, the most powerful German leaders were embroiled in a series of desperate political maneuverings.
<ul><li>President Hindenburg appointed Hitler to be Chancellor. </li></ul><ul><li>The following year Hindenburg died and Hitler abolished the presidency taking all power for himself. </li></ul><ul><li>He then eliminated all political rivals and made the armed forces swear a personal oath of loyalty to him. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Abolishing the free trade unions </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminating the communists and Jews </li></ul><ul><li>concentration camps </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasions through speech </li></ul><ul><li>Terror </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidation </li></ul><ul><li>Burned down of Reichstag building </li></ul>Communists 4.8 million votes Social Democrats 7.2 million votes Centre party 5.5 million votes Nationalists 3.1 million votes Other parties 1.4 million votes Nazis 17.3 million votes
<ul><li>Hitler immediately declared that it was the signal for a communist takeover of the nation and convince Hindenburg to grant him emergency power. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the constitution, Hindenburg agreed to pass the Law for the Protection of the People and the State. </li></ul><ul><li>This law gave Hitler what he wanted. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A ban on the Communists and Socialists taking part in an election campaign The leaders from both parties were arrested and their newspapers were shut down. </li></ul><ul><li>To 'keep the peace' and maintain law and order, the SA roamed the streets beating up those who openly opposed Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>As politicians neared the building, they found it surrounded by SS and SA thugs who tried to ensure that only Nazi or Nationalist politicians got into the building. The vote for this law was crucial as it gave Hitler a vast amount of power. </li></ul><ul><li>What he wanted would become law in Germany within 24 hours of his signature being put on paper. </li></ul>
<ul><li>On 7th April 1933, Nazi officials were put in charge of all local government in the provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>On May 2nd 1933, trades unions were abolished, their funds taken and their leaders put in prison. The workers were given a May Day holiday in return. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 14th 1933, a law was passed making it illegal to form a new political party. It also made the Nazi Party the only legal political party in Germany. </li></ul>