Legal = Its activities are circumscribed by laws and procedures Rational = it is structured and organized in a specific (efficient) way Weber suggests that modern states become so complex that they need a bureaucracy in order to be administered effectively Bureaucracy = well oiled machine Because in modern states, the delivery of government services becomes a specialized affair that can only be done by experts Further, because elective officials (incumbents) are always changing, there is a need to ensure that government services are continuous.
1.) Laws are specific and can be learned
The Civil Service Commission protects against the spoils system, meaning that it ensures government positions are not just given out by those who are incumbents Civil Service Commission: Chairman + 2 Commissioners (35 years of age, must not have run in the previous election, etc.) 7 year term, no reappointment. Appointed by the President with consent of the CoA. Vacancies filled only for the completion of the unfinished term. Responsible for the administration of the civil service, meaning the implementation of a merit system and security of tenure in the civil service and political neutrality among government bureaucrats.
Bureaupathology is a term that was coined in the 1960s Side note: 1.) Bureaucracies tend to become inefficient because they are outpaced by change. As noted, two of the main characteristics of bureaucracies are their operational jurisdiction and adherence to rules of operation. The problem arises when adhering to either renders a bureaucracy unable to effectively operate. 2.) Also, the trouble really is that government is not designed to be efficient. Because the logic of governance entails checks and balances, procedures are often laid on in a manner that is meant to provide reasonable delay and effort to get things done within the government mechanism
Red Tape Pertains to lengthy procedures that generally delay the actual delivery of a service (i.e. forms to fill out etc.) Such procedures often become entry points for graft and corruption to take place Spoils system Refers to the tendency of incumbents to give out positions for reasons other than merit once in office Definitely a form of patronage Cronyism = generally, giving government positions/perks to people close to the incumbent not on the basis of merit but on familiarity Nepotism = giving government positions/perks to those related to the incumbent
Context of governance: Decentralization of power and devolution of services Rise of credible NGOs and of civil society in general Information revolution Integration of regional economies Globalization in general
“Reinventing Government” was one of the more influential policy initiatives undertaken by the Clinton administration. - Key terms are “reinventing” and “reengineering” In a sense, it does entail making government work more like a private corporation. - Private sector was first to “reinvent” and “reengineer” itself
Catalytic Government i.e. catalyst Steering vs. Rowing entails determining government priorities and streamlining activities Entails incorporating other institutions to assist in the delivery of services Aids in the specialized delivery of services Empowerment of local communities Giving local communities a sense of participation and ownership in the delivery of services Insittutionalizing competition i.e. Encouraging competition between government and private sector entities that deliver government services (as well as between government entities itself) should promote efficiency and innovation.
Overview <ul><li>What is a bureaucracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Is a bureaucracy different from other government organizations? </li></ul><ul><li>In the Philippine setting, how was (and is) the bureaucracy organized? </li></ul>
Bureaucracy <ul><li>Refers to the legal-rational mechanism within government (Max Weber) </li></ul><ul><li>Pertains to the “permanent and public office authority with fixed jurisdiction” </li></ul><ul><li>Tasked with the administration of specific government services in a fixed, predictable, and continuous manner </li></ul>
Characteristics <ul><li>The bureaucracy operates according to fixed laws </li></ul><ul><li>It is structured hierarchically </li></ul><ul><li>Its tasks are specialized </li></ul><ul><li>Its positions are filled by appointment </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucrats have public service as a career </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracies should be apolitical </li></ul>
How is it different? <ul><li>Government has three branches that correspond to its three functions </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from elected officials, those tasked within each branch to perform government services and functions are bureaucrats </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy is the backbone of government operation </li></ul>
Philippine Civil Servants <ul><li>In the Philippines, the administrator of the country’s bureaucrats is the Civil Service Commission (CSC) </li></ul><ul><li>The CSC is a Constitutional Commission (Article IX, B) </li></ul><ul><li>The CSC is the central personnel agency of the government </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service appointments are based on merit and competitive examination </li></ul>
Bureau-WHAT?! <ul><li>Related to bureaucracies is the concept of BUREAUPATHOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaupathologies refer to patterns of behavior that bureaucracies are observed to exhibit that make them dysfunctional and/or inefficient </li></ul>
Examples: <ul><li>Red Tape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graft and Corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Spoils” System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cronyism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nepotism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
Wanted: Reform <ul><li>Reform is urgently needed in the bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public goods and services have to be delivered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government support is more crucial than ever in the context of globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The context of governance has changed </li></ul></ul>
Reinventing Gov’t <ul><li>Many attempts have been made to reform the bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most recent influential paradigms for bureaucratic reform is the “ reinventing government ” framework (Osborne and Gaebler) </li></ul>
Reinventing Gov’t <ul><li>Reengineering government to become “catalytic” </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment of local communities in the delivery of services </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalizing competition in the delivery of services </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from ruler- to mission-oriented government </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalization of budgetary policies </li></ul>
Problems <ul><li>Lack of political will </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequacy of the justice system </li></ul><ul><li>Reorientation of the punishment and reward system </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of clear standards of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Details of implementation? </li></ul>