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Politics of the Republic of China


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Politics of the Republic of China

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  The politics of the Republic of China function in a structure of a representative democratic republic, in which the President serves as head of state and the Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) serves as head of government, and of a dominant party system.  The government exercises executive power.  Legislative power is vested mostly in parliament and restricted by government.  The Judiciary is independent of both the executive and the legislature.  The Kuomintang (“Chinese Nationalist Party”, KMT) is currently the governing party; it supports closer ties to mainland China.  The ROC currently exercises jurisdiction over Taiwan (Formosa), Penghu (the Pescadores), Kinmen (Quemoy), Matsu, and numerous smaller islands.  The five biggest cities in Taiwan (Kaohsuing, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, and Taipei) are special municipalities.  The remaining territories are divided into three cities and fourteen counties.
  3. 3. MAJOR LEADERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA Major leaders of the Republic of China  Government Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic  President Ma Ying-jeou  Vice President Wu Den-yih  Premier Jiang Yi-huah  President of the Legislative Yuan Wang Jin-pyng  President of the Judicial Yuan Rai Hau-min  President of the Examination Yuan John Kuan  President of the Control Yuan Wang Chien-shien Legislative Yuan
  5. 5. OVERVIEW  The ROC is ruled under the constitution of the Republic of China, written in 1947 prior to mainland China’s fall to the communist forces of Mao Zedong in 1949, and outlined a government for all of China.  In 1991, considerable changes were made to the Constitution; there have been numerous judicial interpretations made to consider that the Constitution covers a far smaller area than what was initially foreseen.  The Taipei government formally affirms itself to be the only true government of all of China, which it defined as comprising Taiwan, mainland China, and outer Mongolia; in living up to that assertion, the Kuomintang (KMT), upon escaping to Taipei in 1949, re-established the entire array of important political bodies, which also was prevalent in mainland China in the de jure capital of Nanjing (Nanking).  Even though much of this structure is still in place, President Lee Teng-hui informally abandoned the government’s claim of authority over mainland China, saying that they do not “dispute the fact that the Communists control mainland China."  Conversely, the National Assembly has not formally changed the national borders because doing this would be viewed as a prelude to official independence for Taiwan (the People’s Republic of China intends to begin a war if the government of Taiwan formalizes independence).  Note: neither the National Assembly nor the Supreme Court has really defined what existing national boundaries really means with respect to the constitution; the latter refused to on the grounds that it is a “major political issue”.
  6. 6. EXECUTIVE YUAN Executive Yuan  Premier Jiang Yi-huah (KMT) since 18 February 2013  Vice Premier Mao Chi-kuo (KMT) since 18 February 2013  The Executive Yuan includes the premier, vice premier, and the cabinet members whose duties are policy and administration.  The President nominates the Premier, who is formally the President of the Executive Yuan. Photo
  7. 7. LEGISLATIVE YUAN Legislative Yuan  The Legislative Yuan (LY), first elected in 1947, is the primary lawmaking body.  The first LY, made up of 773 seats, was seen as a “rubber stamp” institute.  Representatives elected in 1947/1948, as with the National Assembly, occupied these seats “indefinitely” until the ruling in 1991.  The second LY was elected in 1992.  The third LY, elected in 1995, was made up of 157 members serving three-year terms; the fourth LY, elected in 1998, was expanded to a membership of 225.  The LY has considerably increased its position with respect to the Executive Yuan, establishing itself as a significant actor on the central level.  Together with cumulative strength, this body is starting to mirror the recently liberalized political system.  The biggest opposition party, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), challenged the Kuomintang (KMT) rule of the Legislature in the elections of 1992 and 1995; they pulled a considerable share of the LY seats in both elections, while the KMT claimed only half the LY’s seats.  However, in 1998, the KMT increased its LY majority from 50% to 55%, and maintained its governing role in the legislature as the largest opposition party.  The DPP became the biggest party in the 2001 election after the KMT suffered huge losses. Photo
  8. 8. JUDICIAL YUAN Judicial Yuan  The Judicial Yuan (JY) governs the court system of the ROC.  It comprises a sixteen-member Council of Grand Justices (COGJ) that interprets the constitution.  With the permission of the Legislative Yuan, the President nominates Grand Justices to nine-year terms.  Rai Hau-min is the current President of the Judicial Yuan. Photo
  9. 9. CONTROL YUAN Control Yuan  The Control Yuan (CY) observes the effectiveness of public service and examines cases of corruption.  The President nominates the twenty-nine members of the Central Yuan, who are approved by the Legislative Yuan, and serve six-year terms.  The Control Yuan has become more active in recent years; it has carried out numerous major investigations and impeachments.  Wang Chien-shien is the current President of the Control Yuan. Photo
  10. 10. EXAMINATION YUAN Examination Yuan  The Examination Yuan (ExY), functioning as a civil service commission, comprises two ministries: the Ministry of Examination (which employs officials by means of modest examination), and the Ministry of Personnel (which supervises the civil service).  The President of the ROC nominates the President of the Examination Yuan.  John Kuan is the current President of the Examination Yuan. Photo
  11. 11. ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS Administrative Divisions  The Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan (Formosa), Penghu (Pescadores), Kinmen (Quemoy), and the Matsu Islands.  The entire nation is divided into streamlined provinces (Taiwan and Fukien) and five special municipalities.  As the provinces are streamlined, the cities and countries are directly ruled by the central government, notably by Executive Yuan.  The central ruled administrative divisions are as follows:  Five special municipalities (直轄市 zhíxiáshì): Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, and Taipei  Three provincial cities (市 shì): Chiayi, Keelung, Hsinchu  Fourteen countries (xiàn): Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu, Hualien, Kinmen, Lienchiang, Miaoli, Nantou, Penghu, Pingtung, Taitung, Taoyuan, Yilan, and Yunlin Administrative Divisions map
  12. 12. KUOMINTANG Kuomintang  Political party in the Republic of China and currently Taiwan’s governing party.  Even though its name literally mean the Chinese National People’s Party, it is more often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party.  The Revolutionary Alliance, the KMT’s predecessor, was one of the biggest supporters of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of a republic.  Founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen not long after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911.  While Sun was the provisional president, he had no military authority and surrendered the presidency to the military leader Yuan Shikai.  Warlords divided China after Yuan died, whereas the KMT only controlled part of the south.  Later led by Chiang Kai-shek; created a military and was successful in its Northern Expedition to unite much of China.  Governing party from 1928 until it sought sanctuary in Taiwan in 1949 after it was defeated by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War.  Remained the only governing party in Taiwan until reforms in the late 1970s through the 1990s saw a loosening on its ruling status.  While the Republic of China has been a multi-party state since 1987, KMT is still one of the political parties in Taiwan. Logo
  13. 13. MA YING-JEOU Ma Ying-jeou  Born 13 July 1950 in Kwong Wah Hospital, Kowloon, British Hong Kong (now Hong Kong).  Current President of the Republic of China (commonly referred to as Taiwan) since 2008 and Chairman of the Kuomintang (KMT) since 2009; also served in that post from 2005-2007.  Previously served as Justice Minister (1993-1996) and Mayor of Taipei (1998-2006).  Was elected President by 58.45% of the popular vote in the 2008 presidential election; was re-elected in 2012 with 51.6% of the vote.  Assumed office as President on 20 May 2008, and reassumed the post of Chairman of the Kuomintang on 17 October 2009. Photo
  14. 14. WU DEN-YIH Wu Den-yih  Born 30 January 1948 in Caotun.  Vice President of the Republic of China since May 2012, and member of the governing Kuomintang Party.  Running mate of President Ma Ying-jeou in the 2012 presidential election; was elected Vice President with 51.5% of the vote.  Previously served as Premier from 2009-2012.  Attended National Taiwan University, where he studied history.  Served as President and editor-in-chief of University News (大學新聞) student publication in 1968/1969 during his university years.  Wrote an essay for the student publication that prompted future President of the ROC Chiang Ching-kuo to inspire him to serve the people and the country.  Graduated with his BA degree in 1970; served his conscription when he graduated.  Worked as a reporter for China Times prior to entering politics when he finished his required military service in the armed forces.  Was known for his truthful reporting and understanding commentary. Photo
  15. 15. JIANG YI-HUAH Jiang Yi-huah  Born 18 November 1960 in Keelung.  Current Premier of the Republic of China since February 2013.  Vice Premier of the Republic of China from 2012-2013 before being nominated as Premier.  Served as Minister of the Interior from 2009-2012 and Minister of Research, Development and Evaluation Commission of the Executive Yuan from 2008-2009.  It was reported that he once wrote an essay during high school where he dreamed of becoming the President of the Republic of China when he grew up.  Obtained his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Political Science from National Taiwan University (NTU).  Completed his doctoral degree in Political Science at Yale University in 1993; returned to Taiwan after he graduated to become a professor at NTU. Photo
  16. 16. WANG JIN-PYNG Wang Jin-pyng  Born March 17, 1941 in Luju Township, Takao Prefecture, Taiwan, Empire of Japan (now part of Kaohsuing City).  Current President of the Legislative Yuan since February 1999.  Formerly a leading member of the Kuomintang (KMT); seen as a calm and an appeasing figure.  Born in a simple countryside community.  Lived in villagers life; earned positive mental and physical condition.  Excelled in sports in his elementary school years; his teachers motivated him to participate in the physical education department.  Finished elementary school in Tainan Municipal Dashe Elementary School.  Finished his junior and senior years at the Tainan First Senior High School in Tainan; he always became the team leader of the school’s tennis team in this school.  Graduated from Taipei’s Teacher’s College of National Taiwan Normal University with a Bachelor of Science in mathematics in 1965.  Claims that he never put extra attempts in academic studies since his youth and he does not believe in prominent star schools, but his grades have nonetheless always been good and his education always went well. Photo
  17. 17. RAI HAU-MIN Rai Hau-min  Born 2 January 1939 in Miaoli, Taiwan, Empire of Japan.  Current President of the Judicial Yuan of the Republic of China since 13 October 2010.  Also served as Chairperson of the Central Election Commission of the Executive Yuan from 2009-2010. Photo
  18. 18. JOHN KUAN John Kuan  Born June 9, 1940 in Tientsin.  11th and current President of the Examination Yuan of the Republic of China since December 2008.  His daughter, Wendy Kuan (關雲娣), died in May 2011 after she fell off her kitchen window of her 27th floor apartment in Shanghai, China; it was alleged that she took her own life because her husband, Zero Lin (林哲樂), was having an affair.  Avoided contact with Lin ever since his daughter died; did not attend any family events where his son-in-law would also be in attendance. Photo
  19. 19. WANG CHIEN-SHIEN Wang Chien-shien  Born 7 August 1938 in Hefei, Anhui.  Founder of the New Party and current President of Control Yuan since August 2008, having been appointed by President Ma in July 2008, and approved by the Legislative Yuan.  Finance minister of the Republic of China from 1990-1992 and chairman of the Chinese Management Association since 1990.  Grew up in Taipei City and earned a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree from Taiwan Provincial Cheng Kung University and National Chengchi University, respectively.  Was admired in the 1990s for his clean standing and break with the Kuomintang to help found the New Party.  The three parties of the pan-Blue coalition, the Kuomintang, the People First Party, and the New Party, in 2001, agreed to nominate only one candidate for Taipei County magistrate based on which of the three parties could nominate the most popular candidate in polls.  In spite of the combined ticket and a poll predicting a victory, Wang lost to Su Tseng- chang.  Also partook in the Taipei City mayoral race in 1998.  Is married to Su Fa-jau (蘇法昭). Photo
  20. 20. THE END (結束) Kuomintang logo Flag of the Republic of China