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Russia's Political Parties and Dumas

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political parties and dumas in Russia

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Russia's Political Parties and Dumas

  1. 1. Political Groupings & Dumas Francesca Costamagna Alina Claps
  2. 2. October Manifesto Fundamental Laws - What the Tsar issued after Bloody Sunday. - No precise detail of what the Duma would be. - New constitutional arrangement was drawn up with the two legislative houses. - At the top of the Government - Council of Ministers, under Prime Minister. Appointed by Tsar. Answered to the Crown. - Lower Chamber was the State Duma and the Deputies. - Upper Chamber was the State Council. Nobles. 5 days before the Duma met, Nicholas issued these Fundamental Laws. They stated that - Tsar posses supreme administrative power. - Supreme leader of foreign relations. - Supreme command over land and sea forces. - Sole power to appoint and dismiss government members. - Sole power to declare war, conclude peace, negotiate treaties. - Has the right to overturn verdicts and sentences.
  3. 3. Social Democratic Workers (SD) Divided between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. Committed to Marxism. Founded in 1898. Split in 1903. Bolsheviks: Led by Lenin. Disciplined, centralized, organized. Believed in the role of the proletariat under party guidance. Favoured peasant alliance. Mensheviks: Led by Mártov. Cooperation with bourgeois/liberals. Use of legal channels of opposition.
  4. 4. Social Revolutionaries (SR) Led by Viktor Chernov Favoured populist ideas. Redistribution of land. Nationalists. Belonged to the left, terrorism to achieve aims.
  5. 5. Trudoviks (labour group) Favoured nationalization of non-peasant land. Constituent assembly. Minimum wage. 8 hour working day. Peasants and intelligentsia. Alexander Kerensky
  6. 6. Kadets (Constitutional Democrats) Led by Pavel Milyukov. Central liberal party. Favoured constitutional monarchy, with parliamentary government. Full civil rights. Redistribution of large private states.
  7. 7. Octobrists (Union of 17th October) Led by Alexander Guchkov. Moderate conservative party. Accepted the October Manifesto, opposed further concessions to workers or peasants. landowners and industrialists. Demonstration 17 October 1905, painting by Ilya Repin
  8. 8. Rightists ‘Union of the Russian People’ Led by Vladimir Purishkevich. Extremely right wing favouring monarchism, chauvinism, orthodoxy, pan-slavism, anti-semitism. Promoted violence on the left wing. Pogroms through street- fighting.
  9. 9. Progressists A loose grouping of businessmen who favoured moderate reform. Nationalists and Religious Groupings Ukranians, Poles, Georigians, Muslims - all seeking rights and greater independence.
  10. 10. The First Duma May-July 1906 National campaign - winter 1905-06 Bolsheviks, Social Revolutionaries and the extreme right-wing Unión of Russian People refused to participate The first state duma, “Duma of National Hopes”, overwhelmingly radical-liberal in composition. Kadets - won the largest number of seats of any grouping. British model with legislative powers. The new deputies, were peasants. Biggest professional group. The First Duma met for the first time on May 10th, 1906 in the Tauris Palace. Nicholas II
  11. 11. “One saw peasants in their long black coats, some of them wearing military medals and crosses; tartars; poles; priests; men in every kind of dress except uniform.” Sergei Witte the architect of the October Manifesto, and head of Nicholas´s Council of Ministers resigned, under pressure. Replaced by Ivan Goremykin, extremely conservative. Liberals, lost hope. Witte negotiated an important French loan, to keep the economy flowing. The Duma was a radical one. They demanded, among other things, transfer of ministerial responsibility, and compulsory seizure of the lands of gentry, without compensation. The Tsar ignored these demands for ten weeks and after dissolved the Duma.
  12. 12. The Second Duma February-June 1907 “The Duma of National Anger” More oppositional than the previous one. Neither the left nor the right wanted the Duma to succeed, they managed to cripple it as a political force. Stolypin passed an Agrarian Reform Program under the emergency powers while Duma was not in session. It refused to ratify this. Agrarian Reform Program Based on the abolition of the Mir´s communal land. This would make it possible for peasants to become permanent owners of their land. Basically the transformation of the communal pattern of Russian rural life. Stolypin plotted against the Duma, and dissolved it. Peasants, workers and national minorities lost political power after this.
  13. 13. The Third Duma November 1907-June 1912 Octobrists and Rightists (government favorites) won majority seats. Kadets and Socialists reduced in size & divided in principles. “Duma of Lords and Lackeys” Far from submissive, agreed most of government proposals. Including the agricultural reform, by Stolypin. Disputes over naval staff, Stolypin’s proposals to extend primary education and some government reforms. Duma suspended twice. Government passed laws over emergency powers. Duma had no power over the actions of the Tsar or the government.
  14. 14. The Fourth Duma November 1912-17 ● Docile body and a new Prime Minister, Kokovtsov. He replaced Stolypin after he was assassinated in 1911. ● “Thank God we still have no parliament” ● He simply ignored the Duma. ● Too divided to fight back ● The workers took the initiative of taking action and strike. ● Outbreak of the war.

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